Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Interactive developmental toxicity of radiofrequency radiation and 2-methoxyethanol in rats med./bio.

Published in: Teratology 1994; 50 (4): 275-293

Aim of study (acc. to author)

The authors previously demonstrated that combined exposure to radiofrequency irradiation, which also induces hyperthermia and is teratogenic to exposed animals, and the industrial solvent, 2-methoxyethanol, produces enhanced teratogenicity in rats (see publication 3519).
The present study replicates and extends the previous research investigating the enhanced teratogenicity of combined radiofrequency irradiation and 2-methoxyethanol exposures. The interactive dose-related teratogenicity of radiofrequency irradiation was investigated by administering various combinations of radiofrequency irradiation and 2-methoxyethanol to groups of rats on gestation days 9 or 13; gestation day 20 fetuses were examined for malformations.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 10 MHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: 0, 10, 20 or 30 min
  • SAR: 6.6 mW/g unspecified (set initially)
  • SAR: 800 µW/g minimum (6.6 W/kg max value)

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 10 MHz
Exposure duration 0, 10, 20 or 30 min
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
  • not specified
Chamber near field synthesizers enclosed within copper wire chambers housed in Forma 7010 or 74668 environmental chambers.
Setup rats placed in cylinderical plexiglass holders with 12 mm holes
Additional info Each rat was oriented in its long axis for induced EF to be parallel. Rats irradiated in one of the two RF-near field synthesizer facilities designed by NIOSH.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 6.6 mW/g unspecified - - set initially
SAR 800 µW/g minimum - - 6.6 W/kg max value

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • during exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The findings are consistent with and extend the previous research results. Synergism was found between radiofrequency irradiation and 2-methoxyethanol for some treatment combinations, but not for others. The study also clarified which gestational periods, radiofrequency irradiation durations, and 2-methoxyethanol doses would be most informative in future interaction studies to determine the lowest interactive effect level. Day 9 exposures generally evidenced little effect by 2-methoxyethanol, either by itself or in combination with radiofrequency irradiation. In contrast, day 13 exposures resulted in highly significant effects from 2-methoxyethanol and radiofrequency irradiation.

Study character:

Study funded by

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