Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of exposure of larval rainbow trout, Baltic clam and common ragworm to a 50 Hz magnetic field, like it is typically generated by submarine cables, should be investigated.
Overall, 1500 rainbow trout eggs (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 25 Baltic clams (Limecola balthica) and 30 common ragworms (Hediste diversicolor) were placed in an aquarium for exposure and in an aquarium without exposure as control group, respectively. Rainbow trout eggs/larvae were exposed for 40 days and invertebrates for 12 days. From each species, 20 individuals were investigated after exposure.
|Chamber||aquaria (V=25 dm3, 30×30×28 cm)|
|Setup||the aquarium was positioned in the centre of the generator and the field was uniform almost throughout the whole aquarium volume; temperature was kept constant at 9.6°C and artificial day/night cycle of 12 h/12 h was maintained|
In rainbow trout larvae, a significant increase in formation of micronuclei, nuclear buds and 8-shaped nuclei was detected in erythrocytes of exposed larvae compared to animals from the control group.
In common ragworm, a significant increase in formation of micronuclei and nuclear buds was detected in coelomocytes of exposed individuals compared to animals from the control group.
Most changes were found in gill cells of exposed Baltic clams compared to control animals with significant increases in formation of nuclear buds, nuclear buds on filament cells and cells with blebbed nuclei as genotoxic endpoints and significant increases in 8-shaped nuclei, apoptotic and binucleated cells as cytotoxic endpoints.
No significant differences were reported for survival rate and behavior between exposed and control animals of all species.
The authors conclude that exposure to a 50 Hz magnetic field could induce genotoxic and cytotoxic effects in larval rainbow trout, Baltic clam and common ragworm.