Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: repeated daily exposure, 90 min/day, 5 days/week for 2 or 4 weeks
|Distance between exposed object and exposure source||4 mm|
|Chamber||The signal from a signal generator was amplified and then split to individual exposure boxes, made of aluminium and covered inside with planar rubber ferrite absorber (7 mm thick, reflection loss at least 21.8 dB), except for the left-side face and roof. The roof of the box was a transparent absorber (22.5 mm thick, reflection loss 20 dB). The left-side face of the box acted as the ground for a horizontal monopole antenna.|
|Setup||Each mouse was constrained with an acrylic holder so that its head was just 4 mm beneath the antenna element. For restricting exposure to the mouse brain, a flexible magnetic sheet with a thickness of 1 mm was used to cover the low part of the acrylic holder and shield the lower part of the mouse body.|
|Additional info||Mice in the sham group were treated the same way but without actual exposure to EMF.|
No gliosis or degenerative lesions were noted in brain tissues, and no obvious differences in Ki-67 labeling and apoptotic indices of glial cells were evident among the groups. There was no significant variation in the frequency of independent mutations in the lacI transgene in the brains. The results suggest that exposure to 1.5 GHz EMF is not mutagenic to mouse brain cells and does not create any increased hazard with regard to brain tumor development.