Study overviews

Experimental studies on the effects of young animals include studies with young animals prenatally or postnatally (before or after hatching) exposed to electromagnetic fields.

Young animals in this spirit means animals of the whole animal kingdom (but in this context mainly mammals and birds), exposed and investigated before their adulthood.

Studies where young animals are exposed but only investigated during their adulthood are not considered.

The graphics also include some experimental studies with children.

Experimental studies on the effects of low and radio frequency on young animals

654 studies in total
  1. 274 studies
  2. 203 studies
  3. 82 studies
  4. 36 studies
  5. 35 studies
  6. 16 studies
  7. 8 studies

Central nervous system

82 studies in total
  1. 60 studies
  2. 21 studies
  3. 2 studies
Authors Year Exposed system Endpoints Frequency range SAR Exposure duration Parameters
Kim JH et al. 2021 - - 1,760–1,850 MHz - - RF field
Akakin D et al. 2021 animal, rat/Wistar (<i>in utero</i> and young animals) - 1,800 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone
Azimzadeh M et al. 2020 animal, rat/Sprague Dawley - 900 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone base station
Keleş Aİ et al. 2019 - - 900 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone, RF field, CW continuous wave
Ahmed NA et al. 2018 - - 1,800 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone, PW pulsed wave
Zhang JP et al. 2017 - - 1.8 GHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications, RF field
Lameth J et al. 2017 - - 1,800 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone, GSM, PW pulsed wave
Aslan A et al. 2017 animal, rat/Sprague Dawley, whole body cerebellar morphology 900 MHz 0.01 W/kg 1 hour/day for 25 consecutive days mobile communications, mobile phone
Sharma A et al. 2017 - - 10 GHz - - microwaves
Othman H et al. 2017 animal, rat/Wistar albino (embryo), whole body mental development and oxidative stress in brain of rat pups 2.45 GHz - 2 hours/day during gestation W-LAN/WiFi, RF field, 2.45 GHz
Sharma A et al. 2016 - - 10 GHz - - microwaves
Xu F et al. 2016 - - 1,800 MHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications
Erdem Koc G et al. 2016 animal, rat/Wistar (<i>in utero</i>), partial body: head of mothers neuron number in hippocampus of offspring 900 MHz 2 W/kg 1 hour/day from the 1st to the 21st day of gestation mobile phone, mobile communications, RF field, co-exposure
Kerimoglu G et al. 2016 - - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications, RF field
Bhargav H et al. 2016 human - 2,100 MHz 0.4–0.54 W/kg - mobile phone, UMTS, mobile communications
Petitdant N et al. 2016 - - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications, RF field, PW pulsed wave, co-exposure
Ikinci A et al. 2016 - - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications
Guler G et al. 2016 animal, rabbit/New Zealand White, whole body - 1,800 MHz 18 mW/kg - GSM, mobile communications
Odaci E et al. 2016 - - - - - mobile phone, mobile communications, RF field
Razavinasab M et al. 2016 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body electrophysiological changes of pyramidal cells, learning and memory 900 MHz 0.3–0.9 W/kg 6 h/day during gestation mobile phone, mobile communications
An K et al. 2015 - - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications, co-exposure
Masuda H et al. 2015 - - 1,457 MHz - - digital mobile phone, mobile communications, microwaves
Furtado-Filho OV et al. 2015 animal, rat, whole body oxidative damages of DNA, proteins and lipids in the cortex 950 MHz 0.35–1.32 W/kg continuous for 30 min/day from the first day of gestation until birth UHF fields
Sahin A et al. 2015 invertebrate, rat/Sprague Dawley, whole body - 900 MHz 0.024 W/kg - mobile phone, mobile communications
Narayanan SN et al. 2015 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body neural structure of the hippocampus, learning and spatial memory 900 MHz 1.15 W/kg continuous for 1 h/day for 28 days mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications, RF field