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Printer, fax, copy machine

Belongs to:
Computer and office devices
Description:

A printer is a peripheral which makes a persistent human readable representation of data on paper or similar physical media. Depending on the technology the color is applied differently to the paper. Conventional printer types are the laser printer, inkjet printer and dot-matrix printer. Photoelectric technologies like laser printers use a static voltage at components in the printing process of about 15 kV.
The copy machine and the fax are basically printers with extras, but can be operated without a connection to a computer. The copy machine needs an original sheet of paper which is scanned and then duplicated. The fax can scan and print a sheet of paper and also send or receive this data per telephone connection. For domestic use multi-function devices are distributed which offer all mentioned functions.

Frequency ranges:
  • 50–60 Hz
Type of field:
electric and magnetic

Measurements (acc. to literature)

printer
Measurand Value Feature Remarks
magnetic flux density 0.5 µT (mean, measured) - laser printer at a distance of 30 cm [1]
magnetic flux density 2 µT (mean, measured) - laser printer at a distance of 15 cm [1]
fax
Measurand Value Feature Remarks
magnetic flux density 0.04 µT (measured) - at a distance of 50 cm; measurement bandwidth: 0 - 3 kHz [2]
magnetic flux density 0.06 µT (measured) - at a distance of 10 cm; measurement bandwidth: 0 - 3 kHz [2]
magnetic flux density 0.2 µT (maximum, measured) - at a distance of 30.48 cm [3]
magnetic flux density 0.4–0.9 µT (measured) - at a distance of 15.24 cm [3]
magnetic flux density 0.6 µT (mean, measured) - at a distance of 15.24 cm [3]
copy machine
Measurand Value Feature Remarks
electric field strength 350 V/m (measured) - at a distance of 1 m [4]
electric field strength 1.5 kV/m (measured) - in the vicinity of the device [4]
magnetic flux density 0.1–1.3 µT (measured) - at a distance of 60.96 cm [3]
magnetic flux density 0.1 µT (mean, measured) - at a distance of 1.22 m [3]
magnetic flux density 0.2–4 µT (measured) - at a distance of 30.48 cm [3]
magnetic flux density 0.2 µT (measured) - at a distance of 1 m [4]
magnetic flux density 0.4–20 µT (measured) - at a distance of 15.24 cm [3]
magnetic flux density 0.4 µT (maximum, measured) - at a distance of 1.22 m [3]
magnetic flux density 0.7 µT (mean, measured) - at a distance of 60.96 cm [3]
magnetic flux density 0.8 µT (measured) - in the vicinity of the device [4]
magnetic flux density 1.3 µT (maximum) - maximum value at a distance of 61 cm [5]
magnetic flux density 2 µT (mean, measured) - at a distance of 30.48 cm [3]
magnetic flux density 9 µT (mean, measured) - at a distance of 15.24 cm [3]

References

  1. Lacy-Hulbert A et al. (1998): Biological responses to electromagnetic fields.
  2. Ainsbury EA et al. (2005): An investigation into the vector ellipticity of extremely low frequency magnetic fields from appliances in UK homes.
  3. EPA (1992): EMF in your Environment- Magnetic Field Measurements of Everyday Electrical Devices.
  4. Ahmadi H et al. (2010): Electromagnetic fields near transmission lines - problems and solutions.
  5. National Research Council (1997): Possible health effects of exposure to residential electric and magnetic fields.