Chirp Spread Spectrum

  • CSS
German: Chirp-Frequenzspreizung
Japanese: チャープスペクトラム拡散

Communications engineering. CSS is applied for the automation in buildings, RFIDs and wireless multimedia techniques as a method with strong interference safety which requires only a small amount of power emitting therefore only a weak electromagnetic field. It works in the 2.4 GHz band with a data rate of 2 MBit/s and a range of 900 m outdoors, in buildings the data rate is 1 MBit/s and the range 60 m.

As a simplified variation of MDMA (Multi Dimensional Multiple Access) it represents a combination of amplitude-, frequency- and phase modulation. With the amplitude modulation the transmission power can be regulated to meet the requirements (speech transmission = low energy, data energy = higher energy), the frequency modulation is applied to gain a frequency spread over the whole available bandwidth which results in strong interference safety, the phase modulation is used to transmit the actual information.

CSS is named after the Chirp pulses that are used for the frequency modulation. The bandwidth of the Chirp pulses is 80 MHz and their duration 1 µs.

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