Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Derangement of chick embryo retinal differentiation caused by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields med./bio.

Published in: Congenit Anom 2009; 49 (1): 15-19

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To investigate the histological and morphological effects of electromagnetic fields emitted by a mobile phone on the retina of developing chicken embryos.

Background/further details

Fertilized chicken eggs were exposed (n=60) at different ages of development and then compared with a control group (n=60). Both of the groups were subdivided into two subgroups (30 eggs each) based on exposure duration (10 or 15 post-incubation).



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 1,800 MHz
Exposure duration: 15 min twice daily for up to 15 days

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 1,800 MHz
Exposure duration 15 min twice daily for up to 15 days
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 16.5 cm
Setup 30 eggs placed in a double ring pattern on a double storey circular plate; mobile phone positioned in the center of the lower plate

No parameters are specified for this exposure.

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

Exposed groups exhibited different responses depending on the number of exposure days: The embryos exposed for 10 days exhibited decreased retinal growth and mild pigmentation of the epithelium compared to the control group. Growth retardation reallocated to growth enhancement on exposure for 15 days, with a shift of pigmentation grade from mild to intense.
The authors conclude that electromagnetic fields emitted by a mobile phone cause derangement of chicken embryo retinal differentiation. By continuing exposure for 15 days, stress defense mechanisms may have been activated, producing a compensatory effect to make up the delay in the differentiation and pigmentation, and in the same process cause growth enhancement and shifted from mild to intense pigmentation.

Study character:

Study funded by

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