Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Study of narrow band millimeter-wave potential interactions with endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor genes med./bio.

Published in: Bioelectromagnetics 2009; 30 (5): 365-373

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study potential biological effects of low-power millimeter waves on endoplasmic reticulum.

Background/further details

The endoplasmic reticulum is an organelle sensitive to a wide variety of environmental insults and involved in a number of pathologies. The frequency range of 60 GHz was considered in the context of the near-future applications in wireless communication systems.
As a positive control for stress induction, cells were treated for 16 h with thapsigargin or proteasome inhibitor MG132 or subjected to heat shock (3 h at 42°C; expression of HSP70 was monitored as control).



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 59–61 GHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: continuous for 1, 2 or 3 days

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 59–61 GHz
Exposure duration continuous for 1, 2 or 3 days
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 21 cm
Setup exposure chamber placed inside an incubator; walls of chamber lined with absorbing material; culture plates placed in the far field opposite the pyramidal horn antenna
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power 25 mW maximum - - -
electric field strength 22.6 V/m - - - -
magnetic field strength 0.06 A/m - - - -
SAR 2.64 W/kg spatial average calculated - -
SAR 3.3 W/kg spatial average calculated - -
power density 0.14 mW/cm² peak value calculated - -

Reference articles

  • Zhadobov M et al. (2007): Low-power millimeter wave radiations do not alter stress-sensitive gene expression of chaperone proteins
  • Zhadobov M et al. (2006): Interactions between 60-GHz millimeter waves and artificial biological membranes: dependence on radiation parameters

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

Exposure to low-power millimeter waves did not significantly modify the gene expression of these stress-sensitive genes suggesting that endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis was not altered by low-power millimeter waves at the considered frequencies.

Study character:

Study funded by

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