Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Replication of heart rate variability provocation study with 2.4-GHz cordless phone confirms original findings (RETRACTED). retracted

Published in: Electromagn Biol Med 2013; 32 (2): 253-266

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study the effect of pulsed microwave exposure on heart rate variability in humans.

Background/further details

69 test persons were included in this replication study to Havas et al., 2010.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 2.4 GHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 3 min

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 2.4 GHz
Exposure duration continuous for 3 min
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 100 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup tests were done at six different locations (either in a private home or doctor's office); GS Filters (Graham Stetzer filters, that filter frequencies between 4 kHz and 100 kHz) were installed where needed before testing to improve power quality; phone (base station) placed 30 cm - 50 cm from the subject's head
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 3 µW/cm² minimum - - at the subject's head
power density 8 µW/cm² maximum - - at the subject's head

Reference articles

  • Havas M et al. (2010): Provocation study using heart rate variability shows microwave radiation from 2.4 GHz cordless phone affects autonomic nervous system.

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • before exposure
  • during exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

A remarkable percentage of the test persons were moderately sensitive to very sensitive to exposure generated by a cordless phone based on heart rate variability, and these reactions were not psychosomatic. Under exposure conditions, a significantly increased heart rate, an altered heart rate variability and changes in the sympathetic and parasympathetic control of the autonomic nervous system were found in comparison to the sham exposure.
The results of this study are similar to those of the previous study (Havas et al., 2010). The authors conclude that the exposure to a 2.4 GHz-cordless phone could affect the autonomic nervous system of humans.

Study character:

Replicated studies

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