Two whole blood samples were collected from 16 ostensibly healthy volunteers. The first sample from each donor was exposed to the electromagnetic field (exposure group) and the other sample was not exposed (control group).
Exposure duration: continuous for 30 minutes
|Distance between exposed object and exposure source||1 cm|
|Setup||a tube with blood of each volunteer was placed in a plastic rack, 1 cm from the chassis of a smartphone placed in a horizontal position in the middle of the rack; the main characteristics of the smartphone used for this experiment were height: 12.4 cm, width: 5.9 cm, thickness: 0.8 cm, widescreen: 10 cm (diagonal); immediately after placing the samples in the plastic rack close to the smartphone, a call was placed and a communication lasting exactly 30 min was manually activated with 3G and Wi-Fi connections being disabled; throughout the call, the rack containing the samples and the smartphone was gently inverted one-time upside-down every 5 min to prevent blood cell sedimentation; the smartphone was then removed from the plastic rack and the samples were left in upright position for additional 60 min, without further mixing or exposure|
|Additional info||control blood samples of each volunteer were placed in another plastic rack for 90 min; as for exposed samples, the rack was gently inverted one-time upside-down every 5 min during the first 30 min; the samples were also left in the upright position for the remaining 60 min, without further mixing afterwards; close contact (<1 m) of the control samples to mobile phones or other sources of radiofrequency waves was avoided throughout the study period|
No parameters are specified for this exposure.
Leukocyte counts did not show significant differences between the groups. However, a significantly increased neutrophil activity was measured in exposed samples compared to the control group.
The authors conclude that exposure of human blood samples to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field might trigger neutrophil activation.