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Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Pulsed or continuous electromagnetic field induce p53/p21-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway in mouse spermatogenic cells in vitro and thus may affect male fertility.

Published in: Toxicology 2017; 382: 84-92

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To examine effects of continuous and pulsed magnetic field exposure on mouse spermatogenic cell lines as a model for male fertility.
Background/further details: Cells were subjected to the following exposure conditions: 1) 2 Hz continuous magnetic field, 2) 50 Hz continuous magnetic field, 3) 120 Hz continuous magnetic field, 4) 2 Hz pulsed magnetic field, 5) 50 Hz pulsed magnetic field, 6) 120 Hz continuous magnetic field or 7) non-exposed control group.
Unless otherwise stated in the results, cells were analyzed 48 hours after exposure.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 2 Hz
Exposure duration: 2 hours
continuous magnetic field
Exposure 2: 50 Hz
Exposure duration: 2 hours
continuous magnetic field
Exposure 3: 120 Hz
Exposure duration: 2 hours
continuous magnetic field
Exposure 4: 2 Hz
Exposure duration: 2 hours
Exposure 5: 50 Hz
Exposure duration: 2 hours
Exposure 6: 120 Hz
Exposure duration: 2 hours
General information
the geomagnetic field was neglecte
Exposure 1
Main characteristics
Frequency 2 Hz
Type
Waveform
Exposure duration 2 hours
Additional info continuous magnetic field
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 10 cm
Setup device consisted of two elements equipped with a cooling system; culture dishes were placed in the center of the magnetic field
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 2.5 mT - measured - at the center of the culture flask
magnetic flux density 8 mT - measured - at the outer edge of the culture flask
Exposure 2
Main characteristics
Frequency 50 Hz
Type
Waveform
Exposure duration 2 hours
Additional info continuous magnetic field
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 2.5 mT - measured - at the center of the culture flask
magnetic flux density 8 mT - measured - at the outer edge of the culture flask
Exposure 3
Main characteristics
Frequency 120 Hz
Type
Waveform
Exposure duration 2 hours
Additional info continuous magnetic field
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 2.5 mT - measured - at the center of the culture flask
magnetic flux density 8 mT - measured - at the outer edge of the culture flask
Exposure 4
Main characteristics
Frequency 2 Hz
Type
Waveform
Exposure duration 2 hours
Additional info pulsed magnetic field
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 2.5 mT - measured - at the center of the culture flask
magnetic flux density 8 mT - measured - at the outer edge of the culture flask
Exposure 5
Main characteristics
Frequency 50 Hz
Type
Waveform
Exposure duration 2 hours
Additional info pulsed magnetic field
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 2.5 mT - measured - at the center of the culture flask
magnetic flux density 8 mT - measured - at the outer edge of the culture flask
Exposure 6
Main characteristics
Frequency 120 Hz
Type
Waveform
Exposure duration 2 hours
Additional info pulsed magnetic field
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 2.5 mT - measured - at the center of the culture flask
magnetic flux density 8 mT - measured - at the outer edge of the culture flask

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated material:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

Cell proliferation was significantly decreased in both cell lines 96 hours after exposure to continuous magnetic fields compared to cells without exposure. Cell morphology was only changed after pulsed magnetic field exposure. Oxidative stress, as shown in significantly increased levels of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide compared to the control cells, was present with most of the examined exposure parameters. The protein expression of nuclear factor kappa B was significantly increased in GC-2 cells exposed to pulsed magnetic fields in comparison to non-exposed cells. After exposure (continuous and pulsed), the cell cycle distribution was changed in both cell lines: Significantly less cells were in the G0/G1 phase (both cell lines and all exposure conditions) and significantly more cells were in the S phase or in the G2/M phase (depending on cell line and respective exposure condition). Protein expression of p53 was significantly decreased in GC-1 cells after pulsed magnetic field exposure (all frequencies) and after 120 Hz-continuous magnetic field exposure in GC-2 cells. The protein expression of p21 was also changed but the differences were not statistically significant. Metabolic activity was only significantly reduced in GC-2 cells exposed to 120 Hz continuous and pulsed magnetic field compared to the control group.
The authors conclude that continuous and pulsed magnetic fields could induce p53/p21 mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in spermatogenic cell lines from mice.
Study character:

Study funded by

  • not stated/no funding

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