Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Continuous exposure to 60 Hz magnetic fields induces duration- and dose-dependent apoptosis of testicular germ cells. med./bio.

Published in: Bioelectromagnetics 2014; 35 (2): 100-107

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To examine the effects of an exposure to an extremely low frequency magnetic field on the testis of mice.

Background/further details

Two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, the dose-related effects were examined in 4 subgroups (25 mice per subgroup): 1 a) sham exposure for 8 weeks, 1 b) exposure at 2 µT for 8 weeks, 1 c) exposure at 20 µT for 8 weeks and 1 d) exposure at 200 µT for 8 weeks.
In a second experiment the effect of the exposure duration was examined in 8 subgroups (10 mice per subgroup): 2 a) sham exposure for 2 weeks, 2 b) exposure at100 µT for 2 weeks, 2 c) sham exposure for 4 weeks, 2 d) exposure at 100 µT for 4 weeks, 2 e) sham exposure for 6 weeks, 2 f) exposure at 100 µT for 6 weeks, 2 g) sham exposure for 8 weeks and 2 h) exposure at 100 µT for 8 weeks.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 60 Hz
Exposure duration: continuous 24 hours/day for 8 weeks
Exposure 2: 60 Hz
Exposure duration: continuous 24 hours/day for 8 weeks
Exposure 3: 60 Hz
Exposure duration: continuous 24 hours/day for 8 weeks
Exposure 4: 60 Hz
Exposure duration: continuous 24 hours/day for 2 weeks
Exposure 5: 60 Hz
Exposure duration: continuous 24 hours/day for 4 weeks
Exposure 6: 60 Hz
Exposure duration: continuous 24 hours/day for 6 weeks
Exposure 7: 60 Hz
Exposure duration: continuous 24 hours/day for 8 weeks

General information

i) dosis-related effects 2 µT, 8 weeks 20 µT, 8 weeks 200 µT, 8 weeks ii) duration-related effects 100 µT, 2 weeks 100 µT, 4 weeks 100 µT, 6 weeks 100 µT, 8 weeks

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 60 Hz
Type
Exposure duration continuous 24 hours/day for 8 weeks
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Chamber mice were housed in non-metallic polycarbonate cages and covers
Setup only horizontal coils were used for exposure to get transverse magnetic field direction to simulate human transverse magnetic field exposure under power lines
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 2 µT - measured and calculated - -

Exposure 2

Main characteristics
Frequency 60 Hz
Type
Exposure duration continuous 24 hours/day for 8 weeks
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 20 µT - measured and calculated - -

Exposure 3

Main characteristics
Frequency 60 Hz
Type
Exposure duration continuous 24 hours/day for 8 weeks
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 200 µT - measured and calculated - -

Exposure 4

Main characteristics
Frequency 60 Hz
Type
Exposure duration continuous 24 hours/day for 2 weeks
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 100 µT - measured and calculated - -

Exposure 5

Main characteristics
Frequency 60 Hz
Type
Exposure duration continuous 24 hours/day for 4 weeks
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 100 µT - measured and calculated - -

Exposure 6

Main characteristics
Frequency 60 Hz
Type
Exposure duration continuous 24 hours/day for 6 weeks
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 100 µT - measured and calculated - -

Exposure 7

Main characteristics
Frequency 60 Hz
Type
Exposure duration continuous 24 hours/day for 8 weeks
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 100 µT - measured and calculated - -

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated material:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • during exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

No differences regarding the weight of the body and testis were observed within the groups.
The number of apoptotic cells were significantly increased at exposures at 100 µT for 6 (group 2 f) and for 8 (group 2 h) weeks and at exposures at 20 µT (group 1 c) and 200 µT (group 1 d) for 8 weeks compared to the corresponding sham exposure groups. Additionally, the number of sperms was significantly decreased in the mice exposed for 8 weeks at 100 µT (group 2 h) and the diameter of seminiferous tubule decreased in mice exposed for 8 weeks at 200 µT (group 1 d) when compared to the corresponding sham exposure groups.
The authors conclude that continuous exposure to an extremely low frequency magnetic field could affect the testis of mice in a duration- and dose-dependent manner.

Study character:

Study funded by

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