Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Neural function and behavior: defining the relationship. med./bio.

Published in: Ann N Y Acad Sci 1975; 247: 433-439

Aim of study (acc. to editor)

To study the effects of pulsed irradiation, continuous wave (CW) irradiation, and sham irradiation on the behavior and blood-brain barrier permeability of rats and to define the relationship between neural function and behavior.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 1.2 GHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: 4 x 30 min
Exposure 2: 1.2 GHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: 4 x 30 min
Exposure 3: 1.2 GHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: 30 min
Exposure 4: 1.2 GHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: 30 min

General information

18 female rats each were assigned to either pulse, continous wave or sham exposure group.

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 1.2 GHz
Type
Exposure duration 4 x 30 min
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 500 µs
Packets per second 1,000
Additional info

Each pulse had a rise time of 1 µs followed by exponential decay to less than 1/3 pulse amplitude at pulse off.

Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup White polystyrene shuttle box divided in half by a lower hurdle. One half was shielded from radio frequency
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 21 W/m² peak value estimated - -
power density 2 W/m² mean measured - -

Exposure 2

Main characteristics
Frequency 1.2 GHz
Type
Exposure duration 4 x 30 min
Modulation
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 2.4 W/m² mean measured - -

Exposure 3

Main characteristics
Frequency 1.2 GHz
Type
Charakteristic
Exposure duration 30 min
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 500 µs
Packets per second 1,000
Additional info

Each pulse had a rise time of 1 µs followed by exponential decay to less than 1/3 pulse amplitude at pulse off.

Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup Unconscoius animals (by sodium pentobarbital injection) lay on a block of Eccosorb energy absorber in five different positions within the chamber
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 21 W/m² peak value estimated - -
power density 2 W/m² mean measured - -

Exposure 4

Main characteristics
Frequency 1.2 GHz
Type
Charakteristic
Exposure duration 30 min
Modulation
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup Unconscoius animals (by sodium pentobarbital injection) lay on a block of Eccosorb energy absorber in five different positions within the chamber
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 24 W/m² mean measured - -

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • during exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

An association between changes in behavior and in brain permeability was found. Also a difference in effectiveness of pulsed and continuous energy on behavior and brain permeability was found. The differences among groups in the behavior experiment were significant the last 2 days: the pulse-irradiated group spent 30%, the sham-irradiated group 52%, and the CW-irradiated group 64% of their time in the unshielded half of the box. The difference between the pulsed group and the sham group was significant, and the difference between the pulsed group and the CW group was also significant. However, the difference between the CW-exposed group and the sham-exposed group was not significant. The data of the brain permeability experiment indicate that irradiation of a small mammal with low-power radiofrequency energy affects the brain barriers. It appears that pulsed energy is significantly more effective than CW energy.

Study character:

Study funded by

Replication studies