Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Effects of low-level microwave irradiation on hippocampal and frontal cortical choline uptake are classically conditionable. med./bio.

Published in: Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1987; 27 (4): 635-639

Aim of study (acc. to author)

In a previous study (publication 673), it was found that sodium dependent high-affinity choline uptake in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of rats was lowered after acute exposure to low-level 2450 MHz pulsed microwaves. In the present study, the authors investigated developments of tolerance and classical conditioning to these effects of microwaves.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 2,450 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: repeated daily exposure, 45 min/day, for 10 days
  • power density: 1 mW/cm² spatial average
  • SAR: 0.6 W/kg average over mass (whole body)

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 2,450 MHz
  • guided field
  • circular
Exposure duration repeated daily exposure, 45 min/day, for 10 days
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 2 µs
Repetition frequency 500 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup Four rats were simultaneously subjected to MW or sham exposure.
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional info On the 11th day, both MW and sham exposed rats were randomly assigned to another MW or sham session. In addition, some rats were not put in the waveguides. So, there were six treatment groups in total regarding 10-day and 11th-day exposures.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 1 mW/cm² spatial average - - -
SAR 0.6 W/kg average over mass measured whole body -

Reference articles

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The authors found that tolerance, a decrease in response to microwaves, developed to the effect of microwaves on choline uptake in the hippocampus, but not in the frontal cortex. Conditioned effects were also found: an increase in choline uptake in the hippocampus and a decrease in uptake in the frontal cortex. The results suggest that the effects of microwaves on choline uptake in the hippocampus and frontal cortex are classically conditionable, probably to cues in the exposure environment.

Study character:

Study funded by

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