Study type: Epidemiological study (observational study)

Prevalence of headache among handheld cellular telephone users in Singapore: a community study epidem.

Published in: Environ Health Perspect 2000; 108 (11): 1059-1062

Aim of study (acc. to author)

The prevalence of specific central nervous system symptoms among cellular telephone users was investigated in a cross-sectional study in Singapore.

Further details

A mobile phone user was defined as a person who used the mobile phone at least once each day on average.

Endpoint/type of risk estimation

Type of risk estimation:



Exposure groups

Group Description
Reference group 1 no mobile phone use
Group 2 mobile phone use
Group 3 duration per day: < 2 min
Group 4 duration per day: 2 - 60 min
Group 5 duration per day: > 60 min
Group 6 times per day: 0
Group 7 times per day: < 5
Group 8 times per day: 5 - 10
Group 9 times per day: > 10
Group 10 hand-free equipment used: never
Group 11 hand-free equipment used: some of the time
Group 12 hand-free equipment used: all of the time


Study size

Type Value
Participants 808
Participation rate 45 %

781 individuals included in analysis

Statistical analysis method: (adjustment: )

Results (acc. to author)

362 individuals (44.8 %) used a mobile phone.
Headache was the most prevalent symptom among mobile phone users as compared to non-mobile phone users (60.3 % versus 54 %; adjusted prevalence rate ratio: 1.31; CI: 1.00 - 1.70). The use of mobile phone was not associated with a significant increase of CNS symptoms other than headache.

Limitations (acc. to author)

The participation rate was low and could bias the findings.

Study funded by

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