Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Modulated low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation activates or inhibits the respiratory burst of neutrophils as a function of the modulation frequency. med./bio.

Published in: Biophysics 1997; 42 (5): 1149-1158

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To investigate the effects of electromagnetic irradiation on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mouse neutrophils in vitro.

Background/further details

The cells were treated with a calcium ionophore (A23187) and a phorbol ester (phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate). Both substances lead synergistically to an increased production of reactive oxygen species in non-irradiated cells.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 41.75–42.15 GHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: continuous for 20 min
Exposure 2: 41.95 GHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: continuous for 20 min
Exposure 3: 41.85–41.95 GHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 20 min
Exposure 4: 41.75–42.15 GHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 20 min

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 41.75–42.15 GHz
Type
Charakteristic
Exposure duration continuous for 20 min
Additional info steps of 0.05 GHz
Modulation
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
  • ridge waveguide emitter with an aperture of mm
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 400 mm
Setup The cell cultures were placed in six plastic compartments located in a special holder and irradiated from the bottom (0.2-0.3 mm thick). The cell monolayer was less than 0.1 mm thick, the height of the solution being 2 mm.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 50 µW/cm² - measured and calculated - -

Exposure 2

Main characteristics
Frequency 41.95 GHz
Type
Charakteristic
Exposure duration continuous for 20 min
Modulation
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 0.007 µW/cm² - measured and calculated - -
power density 0.08 µW/cm² - measured and calculated - -
power density 0.64 µW/cm² - measured and calculated - -
power density 3.9 µW/cm² - measured and calculated - -
power density 19 µW/cm² - measured and calculated - -
power density 53 µW/cm² - measured and calculated - -
power density 104 µW/cm² - measured and calculated - -
power density 146 µW/cm² - measured and calculated - -

Exposure 3

Main characteristics
Frequency 41.85–41.95 GHz
Type
Charakteristic
Exposure duration continuous for 20 min
Additional info 41.85 and 41.95 GHz were used.
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse type rectangular
Additional info

pulse rates of 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 50 Hz

Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 50 µW/cm² - measured and calculated - -

Exposure 4

Main characteristics
Frequency 41.75–42.15 GHz
Type
Charakteristic
Exposure duration continuous for 20 min
Additional info steps of 0.05 GHz
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 1 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 50 µW/cm² - measured and calculated - -

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The electromagnetic irradiation affected the production of reactive oxygen species as determined by luminol-chemiluminescence. Chemiluminescence is proportional to the oxygen species production. The observed effects depend on carrier frequency and modulation frequency.

Study character:

Study funded by

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