Pharmacology. A group of antibiotics which contain a sugar bonded to an amino (NH3) group. Streptomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, and neomycin belong to the aminoglycoside antibiotics. They are used to treat infections caused by aerobic gram-negative bacteria. They inhibit protein biosynthesis in bacterial cell by binding to the bacterial ribosomes. All aminoglycoside antibiotics are highly toxic and can cause adverse effects such as hearing loss and kidney damage.