The exposure system [Kainz et al., 2006] consisted of 12 wheels, i.e., 3 per dose group. Each wheel consisted of a circular cascade of 17 sectored waveguides excited by one central quarter-loop antenna.
Animals were restrained in a horizontal position in polycarbonate tubes (230 mm long, inner diameter max. 63 mm, tapering to 22 mm at the cone-shaped apex), identical to those used in inhalation studies, but without any metal.
The high dose was set close to but below the level causing a measurable body core-temperature increase [Ebert et al., 2005]. Ambient fields were found to be below 2 mV/m at RF (GSM) and below 50 V/m and 1.6 µT at powerfrequencies. From this, sham exposure was concluded to be far below 0.01 mW/kg.
Measurement and calculation details
The results of the detailed dosimetry conducted according to [Kuster et al., 2006] are given in a table, including both spatial peak and organ-averaged SAR values, as well as instant and lifetime variations and uncertainty values.
Kainz W et al.
Development of novel whole-body exposure setups for rats providing high efficiency, National Toxicology Program (NTP) compatibility and well-characterized exposure.
Kuster N et al.
Methodology of detailed dosimetry and treatment of uncertainty and variations for in vivo studies.
Ebert S et al.
Response, thermal regulatory threshold and thermal breakdown threshold of restrained RF-exposed mice at 905 MHz.
Bartsch H et al.
Effect of chronic exposure to a GSM-like signal (mobile phone) on survival of female Sprague-Dawley rats: Modulatory effects by month of birth and possibly stage of the solar cycle.
Tillmann T et al.
Indication of cocarcinogenic potential of chronic UMTS-modulated radiofrequency exposure in an ethylnitrosourea mouse model.
Shen YH et al.
[Effects of mobile-phone microwave on dimethylbenz (a) anthracene induced mammary carcinoma development in rats]
Yu D et al.
Effects of 900 MHz GSM wireless communication signals on DMBA-induced mammary tumors in rats.
Anane R et al.
Effects of GSM-900 microwaves on DMBA-induced mammary gland tumors in female Sprague-Dawley rats.
Bartsch H et al.
Chronic exposure to a GSM-like signal (mobile phone) does not stimulate the development of DMBA-induced mammary tumors in rats: results of three consecutive studies.