Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

The Mobile Phone Decreases Fructose But Not Citrate in Rabbit Semen: A Longitudinal Study (RETRACTED). retracted

Published in: Syst Biol Reprod Med 2009; 55: 181-187

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study the effect of exposure to electromagnetic irradiation emitted from the mobile phone on fructose and citrate level in sperms of rabbits. (The study was retracted by publisher (Krawetz and Heinink 2012).)

Background/further details

Both fructose and citrate are important components in semen that facilitate sperm motility: Fructose serves as primary energy source for ejaculated sperms and citrate may inhibit seminal plasma DNAse to maintain sperm motility.
30 adult male rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: 1) mobile phone exposure (n=11), 2) sham exposure group (n=11), and 3) cage control group (n=8). Semen analysis and sperm function tests were conducted weekly.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 900 MHz
Exposure duration: continuous for 8 hr/day during 12 weeks

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 900 MHz
Exposure duration continuous for 8 hr/day during 12 weeks
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup 50 cm x 25 cm x 35 cm cages with plastic partitions to keep the animals in a specific position during exposure; mobile phone's antenna fixed to the cage bottom opposing the animal's genitalia
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 2.92 V/m average over time estimated - at 0.5 cm distance
electric field strength 0.487 V/m average over time estimated - at the most distant region of the cage
SAR 0.43 W/kg average over mass cf. remarks whole body as defined in the mobile phone's handbook

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • before exposure
  • during exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

A significant decrease in both fructose levels and in the number of motile sperms was observed in the mobile phone exposure group at the 10th week and thereafter. However, there was no significant correlation between the decline in the levels of fructose and the sperm motility. The sham exposed animals showed a similar but significantly less decline in sperm motility. No significant changes in citrate levels or any other study parameters were found in the three animal groups throughout the study.
The authors conclude, that the pulsed radiofrequency emitted by the mobile phone kept in the standby mode affected sperm motility and fructose but not citrate levels in rabbit semen.

Study character:

Study funded by

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