To study the effect of exposure to electromagnetic irradiation emitted from the mobile phone on fructose and citrate level in sperms of rabbits. (The study was retracted by publisher (Krawetz and Heinink 2012).)
Both fructose and citrate are important components in semen that facilitate sperm motility: Fructose serves as primary energy source for ejaculated sperms and citrate may inhibit seminal plasma DNAse to maintain sperm motility.
30 adult male rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: 1) mobile phone exposure (n=11), 2) sham exposure group (n=11), and 3) cage control group (n=8). Semen analysis and sperm function tests were conducted weekly.
Exposure duration: continuous for 8 hr/day during 12 weeks
|Exposure duration||continuous for 8 hr/day during 12 weeks|
|electric field strength||2.92 V/m||average over time||estimated||-||at 0.5 cm distance|
|electric field strength||0.487 V/m||average over time||estimated||-||at the most distant region of the cage|
|SAR||0.43 W/kg||average over mass||cf. remarks||whole body||as defined in the mobile phone's handbook|
A significant decrease in both fructose levels and in the number of motile sperms was observed in the mobile phone exposure group at the 10th week and thereafter. However, there was no significant correlation between the decline in the levels of fructose and the sperm motility. The sham exposed animals showed a similar but significantly less decline in sperm motility. No significant changes in citrate levels or any other study parameters were found in the three animal groups throughout the study.
The authors conclude, that the pulsed radiofrequency emitted by the mobile phone kept in the standby mode affected sperm motility and fructose but not citrate levels in rabbit semen.