To study the histopathological effects of pulse modulated radiofrequency fields on the thyroid gland of rats.
30 rats were divided into a cage control, a sham exposed group and into an exposure group (each group n=10).
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 20 min./day on 21 days
|Exposure duration||continuous for 20 min./day on 21 days|
|Pulse width||0.576 ms|
|Duty cycle||12.5 %|
|Repetition frequency||217 Hz|
|Distance between exposed object and exposure source||10 cm|
|Setup||rats placed in 15 cm x 20 cm x 20 cm Polymethyl methacrylate plastic cages above the rectangular horn antenna (20 cm - 25 cm)|
|Sham exposure||A sham exposure was conducted.|
|electric field strength||41 V/m||effective value||measured||-||-|
|SAR||1.35 W/kg||average over mass||calculated||whole body||-|
Morphological analysis of the thyroid glands demonstrated a high prevalence of cell hypothyrophy due to the modulated radiofrequency exposure. Immunohistochemical results indicated that the exposure activated caspase-9 and caspase-3 enzymes whose proteolytic enzyme activities are key factors in apoptosis.
Overall, the data showed that whole body exposure to pulse modulated radiofrequency irradiation similar to that emitted by GSM mobile phones can cause pathological changes in the thyroid gland by altering the thyroid gland structure and enhancing caspase-dependent pathways of apoptosis.