Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Pulse modulated 900 MHz radiation induces hypothyroidism and apoptosis in thyroid cells: A light, electron microscopy and immunohistochemical study med./bio.

Published in: Int J Radiat Biol 2010; 86 (12): 1106-1116

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study the histopathological effects of pulse modulated radiofrequency fields on the thyroid gland of rats.

Background/further details

30 rats were divided into a cage control, a sham exposed group and into an exposure group (each group n=10).



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 20 min./day on 21 days

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 900 MHz
Exposure duration continuous for 20 min./day on 21 days
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 0.576 ms
Duty cycle 12.5 %
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 10 cm
Setup rats placed in 15 cm x 20 cm x 20 cm Polymethyl methacrylate plastic cages above the rectangular horn antenna (20 cm - 25 cm)
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 41 V/m effective value measured - -
SAR 1.35 W/kg average over mass calculated whole body -

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • before exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

Morphological analysis of the thyroid glands demonstrated a high prevalence of cell hypothyrophy due to the modulated radiofrequency exposure. Immunohistochemical results indicated that the exposure activated caspase-9 and caspase-3 enzymes whose proteolytic enzyme activities are key factors in apoptosis.
Overall, the data showed that whole body exposure to pulse modulated radiofrequency irradiation similar to that emitted by GSM mobile phones can cause pathological changes in the thyroid gland by altering the thyroid gland structure and enhancing caspase-dependent pathways of apoptosis.

Study character:

Study funded by

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