Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Impact of 13.56-MHz radiofrequency identification systems on the quality of stored red blood cells. med./bio.

Published in: Transfusion 2011; 51 (11): 2384-2390

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study the biologic effect of 13.56 MHz RFID technology on blood product samples that might be caused by long-term exposure (0-42 days).

Background/further details

RFID application is used for temperature measurement of stored blood products to support the decision of discarding or further using a blood product.
16 red blood cell units were stored at 4±2°C for 42 days. 12 units were used as control samples and 4 units were used as test samples (exposure).



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 13.56 MHz
Exposure duration: continuous for 42 days

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 13.56 MHz
Exposure duration continuous for 42 days
Exposure setup
Exposure source
  • Siemens Moby SLG D12 RFID reader-writer with a 6 cm x 12 cm antenna
Chamber 410 cm x 350 cm x 280 cm cold storage room with an ambient temperature of 4±2°C
Setup RFID system consisting of a semiactive RFID tag on the blood sample bag and a RFID reader-writer; operating distance 0 - 120 mm; experiments done in the cold storage room
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power 1 W - - - -

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • during exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

In both groups glucose and pH levels decreased while lactate, free hemoglobin, and potassium increased within the expected levels. The hemolysis rate showed an increase after the 25th day in both groups (with slightly higher values in the exposed samples) but remained below the maximum acceptable limit value of 0.8%. Significant differences between exposure and control groups were observed in the levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit on day 7, pH on days 14, 21, and 28, and lactate on days 28 and 35, but during the whole study biochemical changes in all samples remained within the normal expected values.
In conclusion, all variables measured remained within the acceptable limits in both groups, without detecting any obvious adverse effects of RFID on red blood cells; therefore, one can conclude that it is feasible to implement RFID-enabled processes.

Study character:

Study funded by

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