Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Erythrocyte hemolysis by radiofrequency fields. med./bio.

Published in: Bioelectromagnetics 1985; 6 (3): 313-322

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To investigate the effects of continuous wave radiofrequency irradiation of 10, 50, and 100 MHz on cation permeability and hemolysis of rabbit erythrocytes in vitro.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 10 MHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: continuous for 2 h
Exposure 2: 50 MHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: continuous for 2 h
Exposure 3: 100 MHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: continuous for 2 h

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 10 MHz
Type
Charakteristic
  • guided field
Polarization
  • circular
Exposure duration continuous for 2 h
Modulation
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Chamber The coaxial cell exposure chamber was a mechanically modified version of the system described in [Guy, 1977]. It consisted of an annular region having a volume of 5 ml with stainless steel walls (3.34 and 3.84 cm radius) and a Teflon bottom. Samples could be exposed to relatively uniform (15% variation) electric field strengths at temperatures controlled using a high-rate circulating-liquid heat exchanger which allowed duplicating the temperature history of RF- and sham-exposed samples.
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional info Two samples were RF and sham exposed in identical exposure chambers at 22.5 ± 0.2 °C. A third sample was sham exposed at 20 ± 0.1 °C in an incubator, primarily as a reference for K+ release [Cleary et al., 1982]. A fourth control sample in a capped standard 10-ml plastic culture tube was placed together with the third one. All exposures were performed simultaneously. The interior surfaces of the RF chambers and culture tubes were siliconised prior to each experiment.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 6.3 V/cm - measured - -
electric field strength 9 V/cm - measured - -

Exposure 2

Main characteristics
Frequency 50 MHz
Type
Charakteristic
  • guided field
Polarization
  • circular
Exposure duration continuous for 2 h
Modulation
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 1 V/cm - measured - -
electric field strength 4.6 V/cm - measured - -
electric field strength 9 V/cm - measured - -

Exposure 3

Main characteristics
Frequency 100 MHz
Type
Charakteristic
  • guided field
Polarization
  • circular
Exposure duration continuous for 2 h
Modulation
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 1 V/cm - measured - -
electric field strength 4.5 V/cm - measured - -
electric field strength 9 V/cm - measured - -

Reference articles

  • Cleary SF et al. (1982): Effects of X-band microwave exposure on rabbit erythrocytes.
  • Guy AW (1977): A method for exposing cell cultures to electromagnetic fields under controlled conditions of temperature and field strength.

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

Potassium and sodium release were not altered by exposure. Hemoglobin release as an indicator for hemolysis was statistically significant increased at 50 and 100 MHz at a field strengh of 9 V/cm. The mechanism of the observed hemolytic effect is unknown.

Study character:

Study funded by

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