Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Mobile phone radiation induces mode-dependent DNA damage in a mouse spermatocyte-derived cell line: a protective role of melatonin. med./bio.

Published in: Int J Radiat Biol 2013; 89 (11): 993-1001

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To examine whether exposure to electromagnetic fields of mobile phones can induce DNA damage in male germ cells of mice and to evaluate the potential protective effect of melatonin.

Background/further details

The following groups of cell cultures were examined: 1.) sham exposure, 2.) mobile phone exposure in "standby mode", 3.) mobile phone exposure "listening mode", 4.) mobile phone exposure "dialed mode", 5.) mobile phone exposure "dialing mode", 6.) mobile phone exposure "dialing mode" + 200 nM melatonin and 7.) positive control (addition of 0.5 mM methyl methanesulfonate, a carcinogen).

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1:
Modulation type: pulsed
  • power density: 0.008 µW/cm² (±0.005)
  • magnetic flux density: 0.0007 µT mean (±0.0001 (for the 217 Hz component))
  • magnetic flux density: 0.001 µT maximum (±0.0002 (for the 217 Hz component))
  • SAR: 0.813 W/kg maximum (whole body) (according to manufacturer's instructions)
  • SAR: 0.585 W/kg maximum (partial body) (according to manufacturer's instruction (highest value for the human head))
Exposure 2:
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 1 min every 20 min for 24 h
listening mode
  • power density: 5.9 µW/cm² (±1.16)
  • magnetic flux density: 4.159 µT mean (±0.627 (for the 217 Hz component))
  • magnetic flux density: 32.853 µT maximum (±4.95 (for the 217 Hz component))
  • SAR: 0.813 W/kg maximum (whole body) (according to manufacturer's instructions)
  • SAR: 0.585 W/kg maximum (partial body) (according to manufacturer's instruction (highest value for the human head))
Exposure 3:
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 1 min every 20 min for 24 h
dialed mode
  • power density: 11.69 µW/cm² (±2,17)
  • magnetic flux density: 7.631 µT mean (±1.225 (for the 217 Hz component))
  • magnetic flux density: 60.728 µT maximum (±8.874 (for the 217 Hz component))
  • SAR: 0.813 W/kg maximum (whole body) (according to manufacturer's instructions)
  • SAR: 0.585 W/kg maximum (partial body) (according to manufacturer's instruction (highest value for the human head))
Exposure 4:
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 1 min every 20 min for 24 h
dialed mode
  • power density: 12.2 µW/cm² (±1,84)
  • magnetic flux density: 7.611 µT mean (±0.667 (for the 217 Hz component))
  • magnetic flux density: 62.407 µT maximum (±5.466 (for the 217 Hz component))
  • SAR: 0.813 W/kg maximum (whole body) (according to manufacturer's instructions)
  • SAR: 0.585 W/kg maximum (partial body) (according to manufacturer's instruction (highest value for the human head))

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency
Type
Waveform
Additional info standby mode
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Duty cycle 12.5 %
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup mobile phone was placed under the Petri dishes at a distance of 50 mm in the CO2 incubator with its front side facing up towards the bottom of the dish; dishes were located in the middle of the phone at the vertical axis
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional info cell phone switched on without any active calls
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 0.008 µW/cm² - measured and calculated - ±0.005
magnetic flux density 0.0007 µT mean measured - ±0.0001 (for the 217 Hz component)
magnetic flux density 0.001 µT maximum measured - ±0.0002 (for the 217 Hz component)
SAR 0.813 W/kg maximum - whole body according to manufacturer's instructions
SAR 0.585 W/kg maximum - partial body according to manufacturer's instruction (highest value for the human head)

Exposure 2

Main characteristics
Frequency
Type
Waveform
Exposure duration continuous for 1 min every 20 min for 24 h
Additional info listening mode
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Duty cycle 12.5 %
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional info a call was receveid (playing music), automatically accepted and ended automatically after 1 min.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 5.9 µW/cm² - measured and calculated - ±1.16
magnetic flux density 4.159 µT mean measured - ±0.627 (for the 217 Hz component)
magnetic flux density 32.853 µT maximum measured - ±4.95 (for the 217 Hz component)
SAR 0.813 W/kg maximum - whole body according to manufacturer's instructions
SAR 0.585 W/kg maximum - partial body according to manufacturer's instruction (highest value for the human head)

Exposure 3

Main characteristics
Frequency
Type
Waveform
Exposure duration continuous for 1 min every 20 min for 24 h
Additional info dialed mode
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Duty cycle 12.5 %
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional info a call was not accepted and ended automatically after 1 min
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 11.69 µW/cm² - measured and calculated - ±2,17
magnetic flux density 7.631 µT mean measured - ±1.225 (for the 217 Hz component)
magnetic flux density 60.728 µT maximum measured - ±8.874 (for the 217 Hz component)
SAR 0.813 W/kg maximum - whole body according to manufacturer's instructions
SAR 0.585 W/kg maximum - partial body according to manufacturer's instruction (highest value for the human head)

Exposure 4

Main characteristics
Frequency
Type
Waveform
Exposure duration continuous for 1 min every 20 min for 24 h
Additional info dialed mode
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Duty cycle 12.5 %
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional info outgoing call, but not accepted by the dialed phone for 1 min
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 12.2 µW/cm² - measured and calculated - ±1,84
magnetic flux density 7.611 µT mean measured - ±0.667 (for the 217 Hz component)
magnetic flux density 62.407 µT maximum measured - ±5.466 (for the 217 Hz component)
SAR 0.813 W/kg maximum - whole body according to manufacturer's instructions
SAR 0.585 W/kg maximum - partial body according to manufacturer's instruction (highest value for the human head)

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The DNA damage was significantly increased in the mobile phone exposed cell cultures (group 3, 4, 5) compared to the sham exposure and the standby mode. Additionally, the DNA damage in the dialed- and dialing mode-exposed cell cultures was significantly higher than in the listen mode-exposed cell cultures. A treatment with melatonin prevented the exposure-related effects.
The data indicate that exposure to electromagnetic fields of mobile phones could induce DNA damage in male germ cells of mice and melatonin could have a protective effect.

Study character:

Study funded by

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