Semen samples from normal healthy donors (n=23) and infertile patients (n=9) were used. Semen samples were divided into two aliquots (for exposure and sham exposure). Analysis were performed between overall exposed and unexposed samples as well as separately in patient and donor samples.
|Exposure duration||continuous for 60 min|
|Distance between exposed object and exposure source||2.5 cm|
|Chamber||Both samples (aliquots) were kept at room temperature.|
|Setup||The mobile phone had a loop-shaped, omni-directional antenna on the top of its back that was kept at 2.5 cm from each sample.|
|Sham exposure||A sham exposure was conducted.|
|Additional info||Unexposed (control) aliquots were kept under identical conditions but without RF exposure [Oktem et al., 2005].|
Exposed samples showed a significant decrease in sperm motility and viability, an increase in reactive oxygen species level (in all groups: overall, normal donors, patients), and decrease in "reactive oxygen species - total antioxidant capacity" score (however, the score was not significant when comparing exposed and unexposed samples from donors and patients). Levels of total antioxidant capacity and DNA damage showed no significant differences from the unexposed group.
In conclusion, radiofrequency electromagnetic fields emitted from mobile phones may lead to oxidative stress in human semen. The authors speculate that keeping the cell phone in a trouser pocket in talk mode (e.g. while using Bluetooth) may negatively affect spermatozoa and impair male fertility. However, the cell phone and the male reproductive organs are separated by multiple tissue layers, so to extrapolate the effects seen under in vitro conditions to real-life conditions requires further studies.