Semen quality was assessed for each participant in 2013, 2014 and 2015 using four parameters (volume, concentration, total count, and motility) according to the criteria of the World Health Organization.
questionnaire: number of mobile phones owned, 3rd-generation (3G) function, duration of mobile phone use, the position in which they carry the mobile phone, daily duration that the mobile phone is turned on (within the scope of 50 cm near the body), daily duration of internet use (in 2013) or monthly data traffic via cellular networks (in 2014 und 2015), and daily time spent talking on the mobile phone in the last 3 months
< 2 or > 7 days of abstinence, a history of inflammation of the urogenital system, epididymitis, testicularinjury, incomplete orchiocatabasis or varicocele treatment
follow-up: 666 students in 2014 and 568 students in 2015
Statistical analysis method:
duration of abstinence, BMI, smoking, alcohol, cola, coffee and fried food consumption
Results (acc. to author)
For mobile phone use, the median daily duration of having the phone on was 12.5 h for all three years. The median daily talking durations were 30, 18, and 6 min for 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively. The daily duration of internet use was 1.5 h in 2013. The monthly data traffic on the cellular network was 0.2 GB and 0.5 GB for 2014 and 2015, respectively. After adjusting for potentialconfounders, significant associations between internet use and decreased sperm concentration and total sperm counts in 2013 and decreased semen volume in 2015 were observed. For all three years together, daily duration of talking on the mobile phone was found to be significantly associated with decreased sperm count. No significant association between mobile phone and internet use and sperm motility were observed. The authors concluded that certain aspects of mobile phone use may negatively affect sperm quality in men by decreasing the semen volume, sperm concentration or sperm count.
Study funded by
National Natural Science Foundation (NSFC), China
China's International Science and Technology (S&T) Cooperation Project
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