Study type: Epidemiological study (observational study)

Combined effects of varicocele and cell phones on semen and hormonal parameters epidem.

Published in: Wien Klin Wochenschr 2018; 130 (9-10): 335-340

Aim of study (acc. to author)

The possible combined effect of varicocele and mobile phone storage in trouser pockets on sperm and hormonal parameters was investigated in a retrospective study.

Further details

Varicocele is a varicose condition of veins in the scrotum and can lead to infertility.
Semen quality was assessed using four parameters (sperm motility, concentration and morphology) according to the criteria of the World Health Organization of 1999.

Endpoint/type of risk estimation



Exposure groups

Group Description
Reference group 1 mobile phone use: no
Group 2 mobile phone use: yes, storage in trouser pocket


Study size

Type Value
Evaluable 468
Statistical analysis method:

Results (acc. to author)

Men with mobile phone storage in trouser pockets compared with non-users showed a higher percentage of pathologic sperm morphology and reduced luteinizing hormone level. No combined effect of varicocele and mobile phone storage in trouser pocket was observed.

Limitations (acc. to author)

Data on amount of time of mobile phone use and storage in the trouser pockets were not available, thus exposure assessment is very imprecise.

Study funded by

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