Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: repeated daily exposure, 12 h/day for 7 days
|Chamber||A rectangular waveguide (300 x 300 x 1000 mm) was fabricated from 1 x 1 mm brass mesh glued to an aluminium frame, and the ends were filled with 15 cm thick carbon-impregnated, RF-absorbing foam. The amplifier output was connected through a matching network into a quarter wave mobile phone antenna placed transverse and vertical in the centre of the waveguide. The matching network was tuned using a power/SWR meter.|
|Setup||Four or five mice were placed inside the waveguide in a polycarbonate cage (130 x 160 x 330 mm). The same number of mice were placed outside the waveguide in an identical cage for control.|
|electric field strength||85 V/m||mean||measured||-||± 10 V/m along the vertical axis|
|electric field strength||30 V/m||mean||measured||-||± 10 V/m along the horizontal axis|
|power density||19 W/m²||mean||measured and calculated||-||± 10 W/m²|
|SAR||90 mW/kg||mean||estimated||whole body||-|
The exposed animals kept normal and all assessment criteria (including sperm number, morphology and vitality) were not significantly affected. Gel electrophoresis revealed no gross evidence of increased single-strand breaks or double-strand breaks in spermatozoa taken from exposed mice. However, a detailed analysis of DNA integrity using quantitative PCR revealed statistically significant damage to both the mitochondrial genome and the nuclear beta-globin locus.
The data suggest that radiofrequency electromagnetic irradiation does not have a marked impact on male germ cell development, but a significant genotoxic effect on epididymal spermatozoa is evident and deserves further investigation.