Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Chronic, low-level (1.0 W/kg) exposure of mice prone to mammary cancer to 2450 MHz microwaves. med./bio.

Published in: Radiat Res 1998; 150 (5): 568-576

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To determine whether chronic, low-level exposure of mammary-tumor-prone mice to 2450 MHz radiofrequency radiation promotes an earlier onset (decreased latency), a greater total incidence, or a faster growth rate of mammary tumors.

Background/further details

The current study was designed to replicate a previous study (publication 3413) but to increase the SAR from 0.3 W/kg to 1.0 W/kg to determine if a threshold SAR effect exists.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 2.45 GHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: repeated daily exposure, 20 h/day, for 78 weeks

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 2.45 GHz
  • guided field
  • circular
Exposure duration repeated daily exposure, 20 h/day, for 78 weeks
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Chamber The waveguides were housed in a room (5.49 m square) maintained at 24 ± 1°C and 50 ± 5% humidity.
Setup The cages housing two mice were made of Plexiglas with 5-mm Plexiglas rods on the floor spaced 0.75 cm apart and oriented perpendicular to the individual waveguide (a copper mesh enclosure) [Guy et al., 1979]. They provided a floor area of 143 cm² per animal.
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional info Mice were randomly assigned to RF and sham exposure groups (100 each).
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power 140 mW mean measured - input power per waveguide
SAR 1 W/kg mean measured and calculated whole body -

Reference articles

  • Guy AW et al. (1979): Circularly polarized 2450 MHz waveguide system for chronic exposure of small animals to microwaves.

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • during exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The results indicate that under these experimental conditions, long-term, low-level exposure of mammary-tumor-prone mice to 2450 MHz radiofrequency did not affect mammary tumor incidence, latency to mammary tumor onset, mammary tumor growth rate, or survivorship when compared with sham-irradiated controls. Histopathological examination revealed no differences in numbers of malignant, metastatic, or benign neoplasms between the two groups.

Study character:

Study funded by

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