Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Long-term, low-level exposure of mice prone to mammary tumors to 435 MHz radiofrequency radiation med./bio.

Published in: Radiat Res 1997; 148 (3): 227-234

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To determine if chronic, low-level exposure of mice prone to mammary tumors to 435 MHz radiofrequency radiation promotes an earlier onset, a faster growth rate or a greater total incidence of mammary tumors.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 435 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: almost continuous, 22 h/day, for 21 months

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 435 MHz
  • guided field
Exposure duration almost continuous, 22 h/day, for 21 months
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 1 µs
Repetition frequency 1 kHz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Chamber Two identical 7 x 7-m rooms for RF and sham exposure were lined with MW-absorbing material (-30 dB at 500 MHz). Four parallel plate waveguides per room were stacked one above the other. Each waveguide consisted of two circular, parallel plates of 3.66-m diameter and 0.47-m separation with a slotted-cylinder feed antenna at the center.
Setup Fifty mice were positioned around the circumference of each waveguide, individually housed in transparent polycarbonate cages with a height of 12.7 cm and a floor space of 206 cm².
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 1 mW/cm² - - - -
SAR 0.32 W/kg mean measured - -

Reference articles

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • during exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

No significant differences in incidence of mammary tumors, latency to onset of mammary tumors, growth of mammary tumors or survival time were found between exposed and sham-exposed animals. Histopathological examination revealed no significant difference in the numbers of malignant, metastatic or benign neoplasms between the groups. Among the numerous non-neoplastic lesions observed, brain mineralization (small mineral deposits in a limited area of the thalamus) was significantly greater in the sham-exposed animals, while inflammation of the salivary glands was significantly higher in exposed mice.

Study character:

Study funded by

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