Study overviews

Experimental studies on the effects of young animals include studies with young animals prenatally or postnatally (before or after hatching) exposed to electromagnetic fields.

Young animals in this spirit means animals of the whole animal kingdom (but in this context mainly mammals and birds), exposed and investigated before their adulthood.

Studies where young animals are exposed but only investigated during their adulthood are not considered.

The graphics also include some experimental studies with children.

Experimental studies on the effects of low and radio frequency on young animals

649 studies in total
  1. 274 studies
  2. 200 studies
  3. 80 studies
  4. 36 studies
  5. 35 studies
  6. 16 studies
  7. 8 studies

Central nervous system

80 studies in total
  1. 59 studies
  2. 20 studies
  3. 2 studies
Authors Year Exposed system Endpoints Frequency range SAR Exposure duration Parameters
Ahmed NA et al. 2018 - - 1,800 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone, PW pulsed wave
Ait-Aissa S et al. 2010 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body gliosis and apoptosis in the brains of young rats 2.45 GHz 0.08–9 W/kg continuous for 2 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks (day 6 to day 21 of gestation) or 7 weeks (day 6 to day 21 of gestation + 5 weeks after birth) RF field, W-LAN/WiFi, 2.45 GHz
Akakin D et al. 2020 animal, rat/Wistar (<i>in utero</i> and young animals) - 1,800 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone
Albert EN et al. 1981 animal, squirrel monkey (<i>Saimiri sciureus</i>), whole body density of Purkinje cells in the cerebellar uvula 2.45 GHz 3.4 mW/g 3 h/day from the thirty-fifth day of gestation + 9.5 months after birth microwaves, CW continuous wave, 2.45 GHz
Albert EN et al. 1981 animal, rat/Sprague-Dawley, whole body density of Purkinje cells in developing rat brains 100 MHz 2–2.77 mW/g 21 h/day for 5 days microwaves, CW continuous wave, 2.45 GHz
Albert EN et al. 1988 - - - - - microwaves, CW continuous wave, 2.45 GHz
An K et al. 2015 - - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications, co-exposure
Aslan A et al. 2017 animal, rat/Sprague Dawley, whole body cerebellar morphology 900 MHz 0.01 W/kg 1 hour/day for 25 consecutive days mobile communications, mobile phone
Azimzadeh M et al. 2020 animal, rat/Sprague Dawley - 900 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone base station
Bas O et al. 2009 animal, rat/Wistar albino, whole body neuronal development of hippocampus (number and histopathological changes of pyramidal cells in the cornu ammonis) 900 MHz 2 W/kg continuous during gestation (19 days) mobile phone, mobile communications, RF field
Bhargav H et al. 2016 human - 2,100 MHz 0.4–0.54 W/kg - mobile phone, UMTS, mobile communications
Chiang H et al. 1987 - - 3 GHz 3.5 mW/g repeated daily exposure, 5 h/day, see add. information microwaves, low level microwaves, PW pulsed wave
Croft RJ et al. 2010 human, partial body: left/right hemisphere resting EEG (alpha waves) 894.6 MHz 0.7–1.7 W/kg continuous for 55 min GSM, W-CDMA, mobile communications
Drecun M et al. 1990 animal, rat/Wistar, partial body: head EEG 2.45 GHz - continuous for two weeks; started on the sixth day after birth microwaves, PW pulsed wave, 2.45 GHz
Erdem Koc G et al. 2016 animal, rat/Wistar (<i>in utero</i>), partial body: head of mothers neuron number in hippocampus of offspring 900 MHz 2 W/kg 1 hour/day from the 1st to the 21st day of gestation mobile phone, mobile communications, RF field, co-exposure
Furtado-Filho OV et al. 2015 animal, rat, whole body oxidative damages of DNA, proteins and lipids in the cortex 950 MHz 0.35–1.32 W/kg continuous for 30 min/day from the first day of gestation until birth UHF fields
Guler G et al. 2016 animal, rabbit/New Zealand White, whole body - 1,800 MHz 18 mW/kg - GSM, mobile communications
Güler G et al. 2010 animal, rabbit/New Zealand White, whole body lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in the brain 1,800 MHz - continuous for 15 min/day on 7 days - from day 15 to day 22 of gestation mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Haghani M et al. 2013 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body electrical activity of Purkinje cells, cerebellum-related behaviour 900 MHz 0.5–0.9 W/kg 6 h/day during whole gestation mobile phone, mobile communications, PW pulsed wave
Ikinci A et al. 2016 - - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications
Inaloz SS et al. 1997 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body histological changes of the brain of the dams and their offspring 2.45 GHz 2.3 mW/g NIR15: 15 min/day, NIR30: 30 min/day from gestation to day of birth (21st or 22nd day after gest.) microwaves, microw. oven/heating device
Jing J et al. 2012 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body: antenna close to the ear level of neurotransmitters and oxidative stress in the brain - 0.9 W/kg 3 times per day (3 x 10, 30 or 60 min) for 20 days during gestation mobile phone, mobile communications, microwaves
Keleş Aİ et al. 2019 - - 900 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone, RF field, CW continuous wave
Kerimoglu G et al. 2016 - - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications, RF field
Kesari KK et al. 2014 animal, rat/ Wistar, whole body DNA damage, protein expression, apoptosis and oxidative stress in brain 2,115 MHz 0.26–0.9 W/kg continuous for 2 hours/day for 60 days mobile phone, mobile communications