|Chamber||Two rectangular waveguide applicators were placed in an incubator at 37°C with 95% air and 5% CO2. One end of the waveguide was terminated with a short-circuiting plate to generate standing waves.|
|Setup||Cells in culture medium were exposed in a culture dish that was placed on two slits bored into the wider wall of the waveguide. The two slits were pinch shaped which enhanced the coupling of the EMF to increase the effective exposure area. The culture dish was rectangular in shape and divided into four compartments. The thickness of the medium was chosen based on numerical analysis to be 8 mm, which corresponded to half a wavelength in the medium, in order to maximise the SAR at the bottom of the well where the cells were present.|
|Sham exposure||A sham exposure was conducted.|
|Additional info||For sham exposure, the cells were incubated in a conventional incubator. Heat treatment was performed at temperatures of 38, 39, 40, 41, and 42°C. The cells were also treated with bleomycin alone (positive control) or combined with RF exposure or heat.|
There was no statistically significant effect on micronuleus formation in cells exposed to high frequency electromagnetic fields at specific absorption rates from 5 to 50 W/kg. However, statistically significant increase in micronucleus formation was found in cells exposed to specific absorption rates of 100 and 200 W/kg.
There was no apparent effect of co-exposure (high frequency electromagnetic field exposure plus bleomycin treatment).
The heat treatment revealed micronucleus frequency increase in a temperature-dependent manner. Additionally, the increase in specific absorption rate caused a rise in temperature. Therefore, the observed increases in micronucleus formation were attributed to the temperature rise caused by the high frequency electromagneitc fields.