To study whether microwaves of Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) induce changes in chromatin conformation in human lymphocytes.
Heat treatment (40-46°C) and treatment with the genotoxic agent camptothecin were used as positive controls.
Immortal lymphoblastoid (transformed) cell line was obtained by infection of human lymphocytes of healthy donor with EBV.
|Exposure duration||continuous for 30 min or 1 h|
|Additional info||The test mobile phone was programmed to use pre-set frequencies of 895, 900, 905, 910, and 915 MHz.|
|Pulse width||577 µs|
|Duty cycle||12.5 %|
Standard GSM modulation with waiting time of 4039 µs (seven time slots) between pulses. Voice modulation was not applied, and discontinuous transmission mode (DTX) was off.
|Chamber||output of the phone connected by coaxial cable to the TEM cell|
|Setup||all exposures were performed at room temperature in 5-ml round-bottom tubes with 0.5 ml of cell suspension per tube|
|Sham exposure||A sham exposure was conducted.|
|Additional info||because no significant differences were observed between control and sham-exposed cells, the data from both were pooled to compare with the effects of EMF|
The findings have shown that microwaves from GSM mobile phone affected chromatin conformation in human normal and transformed lymphocytes. Because of the very low SAR value in the exposed samples, the microwave effects could not be attributed to heating induced by the exposure system. The exposure level in this study was far below the ICNIRP value.
GSM microwaves under specific conditions of exposure affected human lymphocytes similar to stress response. The findings indicated that the microwave effects differ at various GSM frequencies and vary between donors.