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Effects of short-term W-CDMA mobile phone base station exposure on women with or without mobile phone related symptoms.
Furubayashi T, Ushiyama A, Terao Y, Mizuno Y, Shirasawa K, Pongpaibool P, Simba AY, Wake K, Nishikawa M, Miyawaki K, Yasuda A, Uchiyama M, Yamashita HK, Masuda H, Hirota S, Takahashi M, Okano T, Inomata-Terada S, Sokejima S, Maruyama E, Watanabe S, Taki M, Ohkubo C, Ugawa Y
Published in: Bioelectromagnetics 2009; 30 (2): 100-113
Distance between exposed object and exposure source
The shielded room had an area of 5.3 x 3.0 m² and a height of 2.745 m, an ambient temperature of 23 °C, a humidity of 50%, and a sound level below 40 dBA. Flat wave absorbers (23.6 dB at 2.0 GHz) covered most of the floor, ceiling, and three walls in front of the horn antenna.
The subject was seated on a polypropylene chair in front of a wooden desk with the psychological test equipment. The horn antenna, 1.15 m tall, was placed behind the subject and to the left at a height of 0.755 m being approximately that of an average Japanese female aged 20-59 sitting on a 0.4-m high chair.
A sham exposure was conducted.
The noise used was produced by and recorded near the RFpower amplifier used in the experiment. The noise level at the subject's head position was 65 dBA.
The exposure level of 10 V/m is relatively high compared to the exposure level in the vicinity of a base station, which is reported to be around 0.01 W/m², or 1.94 V/m [Neubauer et al., 2007].
Measurement and calculation details
The input power level to the antenna was controlled with a fluctuation of less than 1% throughout the experiment. The electric field strength was also monitored using an isotropic electric fieldprobe placed 1.5 m in front of and at the same height as the antenna. Uniformity of the electric field was verified in the area where the subject was seated. The electric field was 9.66 ± 1.64 V/m (rms) within a volume of 0.4 x 0.4 x 0.4 m³, where the head of the subject was expected to be during the experiments. The electromagnetic field and the SAR were simulated using the FDTD method and an adulthuman body model resembling a Japanese female [Nagaoka et al., 2004] in a sitting position, assuming plane waves. The peak SAR was found at the fingers.
Nagaoka T et al.
Development of realistic high-resolution whole-body voxel models of Japanese adult males and females of average height and weight, and application of models to radio-frequency electromagnetic-field dosimetry.
Zwamborn APM et al.
Effects of Global Communication system radio-frequency fields on Well Being and Cognitive Functions of human subjects with and without subjective complaints.
Committee to Promote Research on the Possible Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields, Japan
Malek F et al.
Effect of short-term mobile phone base station exposure on cognitive performance, body temperature, heart rate and blood pressure of Malaysians.
Kücer N et al.
Self-reported symptoms associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields: a questionnaire study.
Witthöft M et al.
Are media warnings about the adverse health effects of modern life self-fulfilling? An experimental study on idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF).
Eltiti S et al.
Does short-term exposure to mobile phone base station signals increase symptoms in individuals who report sensitivity to electromagnetic fields? A double-blind randomized provocation study.