Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Cranial and postcranial skeletal variations induced in mouse embryos by mobile phone radiation. med./bio.

Published in: Pathophysiology 2010; 17 (3): 169-177

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study the embryonic development of mice whose dams were exposed to mild radiofrequency electromagnetic fields emitted by a mobile phone.

Background/further details

Dams were exposed five days before mating. Additionally, pregnant mice were exposed to GSM 900 MHz from the beginning of the pregnancy (total exposure time during pregnancy: 1) 5 mice for 0 min, 2) 7 mice for 126 min (6 min/day) and 3) 7 mice for 630 min (30 min/day)). 7 newborns of group 1, 20 newborns of group 2 and 20 newborns of group 3 were investigated: Within 5 h after birth most newborns were investigated. Other newborns (5 of group 1, 7 of group 2 and 7 of group 3) remained with their mothers until teeth eruption before further investigation.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 6 min/day or 30 min/day during 5 days before and during the whole pregnancy
  • electric field strength: 30 V/m (+/- 5 V/m inside the cages)
  • SAR: 0.6 W/kg minimum (inside the cages)
  • SAR: 0.94 W/kg maximum (inside the cages)

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 900 MHz
Exposure duration continuous for 6 min/day or 30 min/day during 5 days before and during the whole pregnancy
Modulation type pulsed
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup 9 cm x 19 cm x 12 cm cages; commercially available GSM mobile phone placed in the middle of the cage's base under a sheet of dielectric material
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 30 V/m - measured - +/- 5 V/m inside the cages
SAR 0.6 W/kg minimum calculated - inside the cages
SAR 0.94 W/kg maximum calculated - inside the cages

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated material:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • during exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

Radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposed newborn mice, externally examined, displayed a normal phenotype. However, histochemical and histological investigations revealed variations in the exposed foetuses with respect to the controls concerning the ossification of cranial bones and thoracic cage ribs, as well as displacement of Meckelian cartilage. Littermates examined after teeth eruption displayed normal phenotypes with normal osteogenic pattern.
The authors conclude that mild exposure to mobile phone irradiation may affect, although transiently, mouse foetal development at the ossification level.

Study character:

Study funded by

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