Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Effects of Acute and Chronic Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure on PC12 Cells during Neuronal Differentiation. med./bio.

Published in: Cell Physiol Biochem 2010; 26 (6): 947-958

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study in vitro neuritogenesis during cell exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields of different intensities and durations using pheochromocytoma-derived cell line (PC12 cells) as neuronal model.

Background/further details

Differentiated (obtained by NGF incubation) and undifferentiated cells were exposed and analysed during the exposure (acute effects) or after long exposure times (days).

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 50 Hz
Exposure duration: continuous for 1 to 7 days
Exposure 2: 50 Hz
Exposure duration: continuous for 30 min

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 50 Hz
Type
Waveform
Exposure duration continuous for 1 to 7 days
Additional info horizontally polarized
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup cylindrical 340 mm long solenoid with a diameter of 113 mm mounted on a non-magnetic support base and placed inside an incubator; cells positioned in plastic dishes inside the solenoid
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 0.1 mT - - - +/- 2 %
magnetic flux density 1 mT - - - +/- 2 %

Exposure 2

Main characteristics
Frequency 50 Hz
Type
Waveform
Exposure duration continuous for 30 min
Additional info horizontally polarized
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup pair of Helmholtz coils with a radius of 445 mm each and a distance of 400 mmm placed perpendicular to the ground in the working zone of a confocal microscope on a non-magnetic carrier; dishes with cells located in the spherical exposure area with a radius of 10 mm in the centre of the microscope stage
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 0.1 mT - - - +/- 2 %
magnetic flux density 1 mT - - - +/- 2 %

Reference articles

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • during exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The long-lasting extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure did not appear to significantly affect the response of PC12 cells (proliferation and neuritogenesis).
However, during the acute exposure (30 min.), in undifferentiated PC12 cells, reactive oxygen species levels increased (at 1 mT) and catalase enzyme activity decreased (at 0.1 and 1 mT). In contrast, an increased catalase enzyme activity was found after chronic exposure (7 days) at 1 mT. Acute exposures (0.1 and 1 mT) reduced the spontaneous intracellular Ca2+ variations in undifferentiated cells. Basal intracellular Ca2+ concentration did not change during acute (30 min) exposure, but increased in undifferentiated cells after chronic exposure (7 days). In addition, acute exposure affected cell response of undifferentiated cells to a depolarizing agent (potassium chloride and thapsigargin in calcium free medium), while basal membrane potential was not changed.
The authors support the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species and Ca2+ could be the cellular "primum movens" of the extremely low frequency electromagnetic field induced effects on biological systems.

Study character:

Study funded by

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