Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Testicular apoptosis and histopathological changes induced by a 2.45 GHz electromagnetic field med./bio.

Published in: Toxicol Ind Health 2011; 27 (5): 455-463

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study the effects of 2450 MHz electromagnetic field on apoptosis and histopathological changes in rat testis tissue.

Background/further details

18 rats were divided into a cage control, a sham exposure and an exposure group.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 2.45 GHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 60 min/day on 28 days
  • SAR: 3.21 W/kg

General information

animals were treated in three groups: i) cage control ii) sham exposure iii) EMF exposure

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 2.45 GHz
Exposure duration continuous for 60 min/day on 28 days
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup rats placed in individual ventilated, cylindrical, 15 cm long PVC restrainers with a diameter of 5 cm; noses of the rats positioned in close contact to the antenna; all six rats exposed at the same time; exposure systems placed in a Faraday cage
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 3.21 W/kg - calculated whole body -

Reference articles

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

There was no difference among the groups for the diameter of the seminiferous tubules. However, the number of Leydig cells of testis tissue of the rats in the exposure group was significantly reduced compared with the cage control group. Estimation of spermatogenesis revealed statistically significant differences between the exposure group and the control group (remark of EMF-Portal editor: details not shown).
No significant difference was found in the level of TNF-alpha and Bcl-2 between the groups. The data showed significant differences in the levels of Bax apoptosis gene (remark of EMF-Portal editor: only between cage control and exposure group, but not between exposure and sham exposure group), caspase-3 (remark EMF-Portal editor: not clear, no consistent statements in the text), and caspase-8 apoptosis enzyme between the groups (remark of EMF-Portal editor: also not clear, no consistent statements in the text; details are not shown).
The authors conclude that electromagnetic field exposure affects spermatogenesis and apoptosis.

Study character:

Study funded by

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