|Exposure duration||continuous for 60 min/day on 28 days|
|Repetition frequency||217 Hz|
|Setup||rats placed in individual ventilated, cylindrical, 15 cm long PVC restrainers with a diameter of 5 cm; noses of the rats positioned in close contact to the antenna; all six rats exposed at the same time; exposure systems placed in a Faraday cage|
|Sham exposure||A sham exposure was conducted.|
|SAR||3.21 W/kg||-||calculated||whole body||-|
There was no difference among the groups for the diameter of the seminiferous tubules. However, the number of Leydig cells of testis tissue of the rats in the exposure group was significantly reduced compared with the cage control group. Estimation of spermatogenesis revealed statistically significant differences between the exposure group and the control group (remark of EMF-Portal editor: details not shown).
No significant difference was found in the level of TNF-alpha and Bcl-2 between the groups. The data showed significant differences in the levels of Bax apoptosis gene (remark of EMF-Portal editor: only between cage control and exposure group, but not between exposure and sham exposure group), caspase-3 (remark EMF-Portal editor: not clear, no consistent statements in the text), and caspase-8 apoptosis enzyme between the groups (remark of EMF-Portal editor: also not clear, no consistent statements in the text; details are not shown).
The authors conclude that electromagnetic field exposure affects spermatogenesis and apoptosis.