Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Impact of L-carnitine and Selenium Treatment on Testicular Apoptosis in Rats Exposed to 2.45 GHz Microwave Energy. med./bio.

Published in: West Indian Med J 2015; 64 (2): 55-61

Aim of study (acc. to author)

The effects of exposure of rats to a 2.45 GHz electromagnetic field on testicular apoptosis and the protective effects of selenium and L-carnitine should be investigated.

Background/further details

Male rats were divided into the following groups (n=6 each): 1) exposure to the electromagnetic field, 2) co-exposure to the electromagnetic field and L-carnitine (1.5 mg/kg body weight/day), 3) co-exposure to the electromagnetic field and selenium (1.5 mg/kg body weight every other day), 4) sham exposure.
The first doses of selenium and L-carnitine were given 24 hours prior to the first exposure to the electromagnetic field. Sham-exposed rats received intraperitoneal injections of isotonic saline solution.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 2.45 GHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: intermittent 1 hour/day for 28 days
  • SAR: 3.21 W/g

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 2.45 GHz
Exposure duration intermittent 1 hour/day for 28 days
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
  • monopole
Chamber exposure system in faraday cage
Setup all 6 rats of each group were restraint in PVC tubes (one per rat, length: 15 cm, diameter: 5 cm) and positioned circularly around the antenna; the noses were in close contact to the antenna and the PVC tubes were ventilated from the heads towards the tails
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional info sham exposed rats were exposed to switched-off system
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 3.21 W/g - measured and calculated whole body -

Reference articles

  • Saygin M et al. (2011): Testicular apoptosis and histopathological changes induced by a 2.45 GHz electromagnetic field.
  • Naziroglu M et al. (2009): Modulator effects of L-carnitine and selenium on wireless devices (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative stress and electroencephalography records in brain of rat.
  • Faraone A et al. (2006): Radiofrequency dosimetry for the Ferris-wheel mouse exposure system.

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The protein expression levels of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3 and -8 were significantly increased in the EMF exposure group compared to the sham exposure group. In the L-carnitine and selenium co-exposure groups, the protein expression of Bcl-2, Bax, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, caspase-3 and -8 were significantly increased in comparison to the sham exposure group. The protein expression of caspase-8 was significantly decreased in the selenium co-exposure group compared to the EMF exposure only group.
The authors conclude that exposure of rats to a 2.45 GHz electromagnetic field might induce testicular apoptosis and that selenium might reduce this effect.

Study character:

Study funded by

Related articles