Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

The effect of 900 and 1800 MHz GSM-like radiofrequency irradiation and nicotine sulfate administration on the embryonic development of Xenopus laevis. med./bio.

Published in: Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2014; 113: 378-390

Aim of study (acc. to author)

The effects of an acute exposure of embryos of the African clawed frog to a 900 or 1800 MHz electromagnetic field and co-exposure to nicotine sulfate on the embryonic development should be investigated.

Background/further details

Nicotine sulfate was used as a positive control on the one hand and to investigate the synergistic effects of an electromagnetic field exposure and nicotine on the other hand.
The embryos were divided into the six following groups: 1) no exposure to electromagnetic field + nicotine sulfate (12.5 or 25 ng/ml in the petri dish solution), 2) 900 MHz electromagnetic field with 1 W power + nicotine sulfate (0, 12.5 or 25 ng/ml), 3) 900 MHz electromagnetic field with 2 W power + nicotine sulfate, 4) 1800 MHz electromagnetic field with 1 W power + nicotine sulfate, 5) 1800 MHz electromagnetic field with 2 W power + nicotine sulfate and 6) no exposure to electromagnetic field + no nicotine sulfate (control).
Approximately 120 exposed embryos and ca. 60 control embryos were used in each test and all tests were replicated 3-5 times.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 4, 6 or 8 h
Exposure 2: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 4, 6 or 8 h
Exposure 3: 1,800 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 4, 6 or 8 h
Exposure 4: 1,800 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 4, 6 or 8 h

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 900 MHz
Type
Exposure duration continuous for 4, 6 or 8 h
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 0.576 ms
Duty cycle 12.5 %
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
Additional info

wave impedance = E/H = 377.5 ohm.

Exposure setup
Exposure source
Chamber tadpoles were incubated in petri dishes (20 individuals each) and exposed in a plastic box with a length of 38.5 cm, a width of 26.0 cm and a height of 15.5 cm
Setup distance between antenna and petri dishes was 2 cm or more
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic field strength 0.065 A/m - measured - -
power density 1.59 W/m² mean measured - -
electric field strength 24.5 V/m - measured - ± 0.5 V/m within exposure area
SAR 1 W/kg mean calculated whole body -
power 1 W - - - -

Exposure 2

Main characteristics
Frequency 900 MHz
Type
Exposure duration continuous for 4, 6 or 8 h
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 0.576 ms
Duty cycle 12.5 %
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
Additional info

wave impedance = E/H = 377.5 ohm.

Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic field strength 0.065 A/m - measured - -
power density 1.59 W/m² mean measured - -
electric field strength 24.5 V/m - measured - ± 0.5 V/m within exposure area
SAR 1 W/kg mean calculated whole body -
power 2 W - - - -

Exposure 3

Main characteristics
Frequency 1,800 MHz
Type
Exposure duration continuous for 4, 6 or 8 h
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 0.576 ms
Duty cycle 12.5 %
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
Additional info

wave impedance = E/H = 377.5 ohm.

Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic field strength 0.065 A/m - measured - -
power density 1.59 W/m² mean measured - -
electric field strength 24.5 V/m - measured - ± 0.5 V/m within exposure area
SAR 1 W/kg mean calculated whole body -
power 1 W - - - -

Exposure 4

Main characteristics
Frequency 1,800 MHz
Type
Exposure duration continuous for 4, 6 or 8 h
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 0.576 ms
Duty cycle 12.5 %
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
Additional info

wave impedance = E/H = 377.5 ohm.

Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic field strength 0.065 A/m - measured - -
power density 1.59 W/m² mean measured - -
electric field strength 24.5 V/m - measured - ± 0.5 V/m within exposure area
SAR 1 W/kg mean calculated whole body -
power 2 W - - - -

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The exposure to the 1800 MHz electromagnetic field (groups 4 and 5 without nicotine sulfate) or nicotine sulfate alone (group 1) resulted in significantly reduced numbers of normally developed tadpoles compared to the control (group 6) with a tendency of enhanced effects with increasing exposure duration and power or concentration, respectively. An exposure to an electromagnetic field and co-exposure to nicotine sulfate (groups 2-5) led to significantly reduced numbers of normally developed tadpoles in all approaches compared to the control with up to 100% mortality in approaches with exposure to the 1800 MHz electromagnetic field and co-exposure to 25 ng/ml nicotine sulfate (groups 4 and 5).
The authors conclude that an acute exposure of embryos of the African clawed frog to a 1800 MHz electromagnetic field can influence the embryonic development and that especially an electromagnetic field exposure and co-exposure to nicotine sulfate can have severe negative effects.

Study character:

Study funded by

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