研究のタイプ: 医学/生物学の研究 (experimental study)

[アフリカツメガエルの胚発生に対する900および1800MHzGSMの模擬的無線周波放射とニコチン硫酸塩投与の影響] med./bio.

The effect of 900 and 1800 MHz GSM-like radiofrequency irradiation and nicotine sulfate administration on the embryonic development of Xenopus laevis.

掲載誌: Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2014; 113: 378-390

この研究は、アフリカツメガエルの胚発生(催奇形性)に対する900および1800MHzGSMの模擬的な無線周波放射RF EMR;全身平均SAR値1W/kg;ばく露時間4、6、8時間)とニコチン硫酸塩(NS)投与の影響を調べた。その結果、1800MHzで例外があったが、RF EMR単独ばく露では発生異常が見られなかった;RF EMRとNSの組み合わせばく露では、NS単独ばく露に比べて重大な発生異常と胚の死亡が観察された、と報告している。

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研究目的(著者による)

The effects of an acute exposure of embryos of the African clawed frog to a 900 or 1800 MHz electromagnetic field and co-exposure to nicotine sulfate on the embryonic development should be investigated.

詳細情報

Nicotine sulfate was used as a positive control on the one hand and to investigate the synergistic effects of an electromagnetic field exposure and nicotine on the other hand.
The embryos were divided into the six following groups: 1) no exposure to electromagnetic field + nicotine sulfate (12.5 or 25 ng/ml in the petri dish solution), 2) 900 MHz electromagnetic field with 1 W power + nicotine sulfate (0, 12.5 or 25 ng/ml), 3) 900 MHz electromagnetic field with 2 W power + nicotine sulfate, 4) 1800 MHz electromagnetic field with 1 W power + nicotine sulfate, 5) 1800 MHz electromagnetic field with 2 W power + nicotine sulfate and 6) no exposure to electromagnetic field + no nicotine sulfate (control).
Approximately 120 exposed embryos and ca. 60 control embryos were used in each test and all tests were replicated 3-5 times.

影響評価項目

ばく露

ばく露 パラメータ
ばく露1: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: continuous for 4, 6 or 8 h
ばく露2: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: continuous for 4, 6 or 8 h
ばく露3: 1,800 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: continuous for 4, 6 or 8 h
ばく露4: 1,800 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: continuous for 4, 6 or 8 h

ばく露1

主たる特性
周波数 900 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 continuous for 4, 6 or 8 h
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 0.576 ms
Duty cycle 12.5 %
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
Additional information

wave impedance = E/H = 377.5 ohm.

ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
チャンバの詳細 tadpoles were incubated in petri dishes (20 individuals each) and exposed in a plastic box with a length of 38.5 cm, a width of 26.0 cm and a height of 15.5 cm
ばく露装置の詳細 distance between antenna and petri dishes was 2 cm or more
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
磁界強度 0.065 A/m - 測定値 - -
電力密度 1.59 W/m² mean 測定値 - -
電界強度 24.5 V/m - 測定値 - ± 0.5 V/m within exposure area
SAR 1 W/kg mean 計算値 whole body -
電力 1 W - - - -

ばく露2

主たる特性
周波数 900 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 continuous for 4, 6 or 8 h
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 0.576 ms
Duty cycle 12.5 %
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
Additional information

wave impedance = E/H = 377.5 ohm.

ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
磁界強度 0.065 A/m - 測定値 - -
電力密度 1.59 W/m² mean 測定値 - -
電界強度 24.5 V/m - 測定値 - ± 0.5 V/m within exposure area
SAR 1 W/kg mean 計算値 whole body -
電力 2 W - - - -

ばく露3

主たる特性
周波数 1,800 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 continuous for 4, 6 or 8 h
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 0.576 ms
Duty cycle 12.5 %
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
Additional information

wave impedance = E/H = 377.5 ohm.

ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
磁界強度 0.065 A/m - 測定値 - -
電力密度 1.59 W/m² mean 測定値 - -
電界強度 24.5 V/m - 測定値 - ± 0.5 V/m within exposure area
SAR 1 W/kg mean 計算値 whole body -
電力 1 W - - - -

ばく露4

主たる特性
周波数 1,800 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 continuous for 4, 6 or 8 h
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 0.576 ms
Duty cycle 12.5 %
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
Additional information

wave impedance = E/H = 377.5 ohm.

ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
磁界強度 0.065 A/m - 測定値 - -
電力密度 1.59 W/m² mean 測定値 - -
電界強度 24.5 V/m - 測定値 - ± 0.5 V/m within exposure area
SAR 1 W/kg mean 計算値 whole body -
電力 2 W - - - -

ばく露を受けた生物:

方法 影響評価項目/測定パラメータ/方法

研究対象とした生物試料:
調査の時期:
  • ばく露後

研究の主なアウトカム(著者による)

The exposure to the 1800 MHz electromagnetic field (groups 4 and 5 without nicotine sulfate) or nicotine sulfate alone (group 1) resulted in significantly reduced numbers of normally developed tadpoles compared to the control (group 6) with a tendency of enhanced effects with increasing exposure duration and power or concentration, respectively. An exposure to an electromagnetic field and co-exposure to nicotine sulfate (groups 2-5) led to significantly reduced numbers of normally developed tadpoles in all approaches compared to the control with up to 100% mortality in approaches with exposure to the 1800 MHz electromagnetic field and co-exposure to 25 ng/ml nicotine sulfate (groups 4 and 5).
The authors conclude that an acute exposure of embryos of the African clawed frog to a 1800 MHz electromagnetic field can influence the embryonic development and that especially an electromagnetic field exposure and co-exposure to nicotine sulfate can have severe negative effects.

研究の種別:

研究助成

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