Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Developmental toxicity interactions of salicylic acid and radiofrequency radiation or 2-methoxyethanol in rats. med./bio.

Published in: Reprod Toxicol 1999; 13 (2): 137-145

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To investigate if the interactive effects (enhanced teratogenicity) noted for radiofrequency irradiation and 2-methoxyethanol (see publication 3519, publication 3522, publication 2234, and publication 9062) are unique to these agents, or if another solvent would interact with radiofrequency irradiation or 2-methoxyethanol. Because salicyl acid is widely used as an analgesic and is teratogenic in animals, the authors selected salicylic acid as a chemical to address generalizability.

Background/further details

Salicylic acid was administered on gestation day 9 or 13 to groups of rats. Dams treated on day 9 were given salicylic acid and exposed to radiofrequency irradiation sufficient to maintain colonic temperature at 41°C for 60 minutes. Those treated on day 13 were given salicylic acid plus 2-methoxyethanol. Dams were sacrificed on gestation day 20.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 10 MHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: 20 min (to raise the temperature from its normal baseline to 41°C) plus 60 min
  • SAR: 8 W/kg average over time (unspecified) (initially for 20 min)
  • SAR: 0.8 W/kg average over time (unspecified) (to 7.9 W/kg for 60 min)

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 10 MHz
Exposure duration 20 min (to raise the temperature from its normal baseline to 41°C) plus 60 min
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Chamber Near field synthesizer facilities operated in dominant electric field mode which were enclosed within copper screen wire chamber.
Setup Animals were exposed without anesthesia in cylindrical plexiglas animal holders which prevented the animals from changing their orientation. The long axis of the animal was parallel to incident electric field.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 8 W/kg average over time unspecified unspecified initially for 20 min
SAR 0.8 W/kg average over time estimated unspecified to 7.9 W/kg for 60 min

Reference articles

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • during exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The findings provide no evidence of synergistic interactions between radiofrequency irradiation and salicyl acid. Limited evidence of antagonism was found between 2-methoxyethanol and salicylic acid (fetal weights).
This study highlights the importance of additional research on interactions in developmental toxicology. It emphasizes the need to consider combined exposure effects when developing both physical agent and chemical agent exposure guidelines.

Study character:

Study funded by

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