Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

2-Methoxyethanol metabolism, embryonic distribution, and macromolecular adduct formation in the rat: the effect of radiofrequency radiation-induced hyperthermia med./bio.

Published in: Toxicol Lett 2001; 122 (1): 53-67

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To evaluate whether the combined exposure of pregnant rats to the the known teratogenic chemical compound 2-Methoxyethanol followed by 10 MHz radiofrequency irradiation would affect the metabolism in maternal animals and embryos.

Background/further details

Furthermore the tissue distribution of methoxyacetic acid, a major metabolite in the postulated 2-Methoxyethanol pathway, was investigated. Finally the adduct formation for plasma and embryonic protein was tested. Metabolite tracing was achieved by using radioactive labeled 14C-2-methoxyethanol.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 10 MHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: continuous for 50 min
  • SAR: 6.6 mW/g maximum
  • SAR: 0.8 W/kg minimum

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 10 MHz
Exposure duration continuous for 50 min
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup animal positioned in cylindrical Plexiglas holders parallel to the electric field
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 6.6 mW/g maximum estimated - -
SAR 0.8 W/kg minimum estimated - -

Reference articles

  • Nelson BK et al. (1997): Interactions of radiofrequency radiation-induced hyperthermia and 2-methoxyethanol teratogenicity in rats
  • Nelson BK et al. (1994): Interactive developmental toxicity of radiofrequency radiation and 2-methoxyethanol in rats
  • Nelson BK et al. (1991): Marked increase in the teratogenicity of the combined administration of the industrial solvent 2-methoxyethanol and radiofrequency radiation in rats
  • Lary JM et al. (1982): Teratogenic effects of 27.12 MHz radiofrequency radiation in rats

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

According to the results found the existing synergistic effect of combined radiofrequency exposure and 2-methoxyethanol treatment on teratogenicity could not be explained by the radiofrequency irradiation effects on the 2-methoxyethanol pathway.

Study character:

Study funded by

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