Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Continuous exposure of chicks and rats to electromagnetic fields. med./bio.

Published in: IEEE Trans Microw Theory Tech 1974; 22 (4): 432-437

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To investigate the effects of the continuous exposure with different electromagnetic fields on body weight, organ weight, and feed consumption of chicken and rats.

Background/further details

Rats were continuously exposed from birth to 47 days of age to 880 MHz field (continuous wave, ultrahigh ferquency). At least 175 male chicks were exposed continuously for periods up to 28 days of age.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 880 MHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: continuous until 22, 23 or 28 days of age
Exposure 2: 880 MHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: intermittent, one week on or off, until 21 days of age
  • power: 180 mW unspecified (during the first week)
  • power: 90 mW unspecified (during the third week)
Exposure 3: 260 MHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: continuous until 22 or 28 days of age
Exposure 4: 60 Hz
Exposure duration: continuous until 28 days of age
Exposure 5: 60 Hz
Exposure duration: continuous until 28 days of age
Exposure 6: 45 Hz
Exposure duration: continuous until 22 days of age
Exposure 7: 45 Hz
Exposure duration: continuous until 22 days of age
Exposure 8: 880 MHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: continuous from birth until 47 days of age
  • power: 100 mW unspecified

General information

As the last experiment, groups of 25 chicks were sham-exposed for 22 days in all exposure cages and compared to the control group in order to verify the homogeneity of the facilities.

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 880 MHz
Type
Exposure duration continuous until 22, 23 or 28 days of age
Modulation
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Chamber chicks were exposed in a metal chick brooding cages of 0.91 m x 0.61 m x 0.30 m
Setup The horn antenna covered the top of the brooding cage
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power 143 mW unspecified measured - -
power 220 mW - measured - -
power density 550 µW/cm² maximum measured - with a "hot space" of 900 µW/cm²

Exposure 2

Main characteristics
Frequency 880 MHz
Type
Exposure duration intermittent, one week on or off, until 21 days of age
Modulation
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power 180 mW unspecified measured - during the first week
power 90 mW unspecified measured - during the third week

Exposure 3

Main characteristics
Frequency 260 MHz
Type
Exposure duration continuous until 22 or 28 days of age
Modulation
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power 220 mW unspecified measured - -
power density 264 µW/cm² maximum estimated - -

Exposure 4

Main characteristics
Frequency 60 Hz
Type
Exposure duration continuous until 28 days of age
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Chamber The top of the metal chick brooding cage was replaced with an electrically insulated aluminium plate of 0.4 m x 0.7 m.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 3,500 V/m unspecified calculated - at the center of the cage

Exposure 5

Main characteristics
Frequency 60 Hz
Type
Exposure duration continuous until 28 days of age
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Chamber A coil with 22 turns of insulated copper wire (AWG no. 14) was wound around the metal chick brooding cage.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 125 µT mean measured - ±10%

Exposure 6

Main characteristics
Frequency 45 Hz
Type
Exposure duration continuous until 22 days of age
Exposure setup
Exposure source
  • same setup as in E5
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 3,500 V/m unspecified calculated - at the center of the cage

Exposure 7

Main characteristics
Frequency 45 Hz
Type
Exposure duration continuous until 22 days of age
Exposure setup
Exposure source
  • same setup as in E6
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 125 µT mean measured - ±10%

Exposure 8

Main characteristics
Frequency 880 MHz
Type
Exposure duration continuous from birth until 47 days of age
Additional info rats
Modulation
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Chamber Four pregnant rats and their offspring were kept in individual metal cages of 0.24 m x 0.18 m x 0.18 m.
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power 100 mW unspecified measured - -

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • during exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The mean weight of adrenal glands was not altered, whereas the weights of spleen and thymus were increased. Growth depression was observed in the rats exposed to 880 MHz.
The increase of body weight in exposed chicks was found to be depressed. Exposure of chicken under different conditions indicated a depressing effect on growth rate and feed consumption. Also a reduction in the weight of adrenal glands was observed.
The underlying physiological and/or psychological mechanisms were not elucidated by this study.

Study character:

Study funded by

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