Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Teratogenic effect of broad-band electromagnetic field on neonatal mice (Mus musculus). med./bio.

Published in: J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2003; 38 (11): 2465-2481

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study the effects of common electromagnetic fields on developing embryos in six pregnant mice.

Background/further details

Pregnant mice were exposed to a continuous electromagnetic field beginning in the third week of pregnancy. After one week of exposure, the mice began to give birth. Mothers and their litters were maintained together in the same cages for 21 days. After this period, mothers and offspring were separated. Offspring were sacrificed. Mothers were left in the cages for four more weeks.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 0 Hz–25 MHz
Exposure duration: exposure started on the 18th day of pregnancy; one week later, offspring was born and maintained together with their mothers for 21 days. After that, only the mothers were left to continue for another 4 weeks.

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 0 Hz–25 MHz
Type
Exposure duration exposure started on the 18th day of pregnancy; one week later, offspring was born and maintained together with their mothers for 21 days. After that, only the mothers were left to continue for another 4 weeks.
Modulation
Modulation type cf. additional info
Additional info

The generated EMF had a continuous spectrum and a noisy character intended to simulate the EMF present in everyday life. The highest energy was delivered at low frequency.

Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup Each standard 7.5-inch plastic cage housing one animal and its offspring was placed between two electrodes: The output of the generator was connected to the aluminium grid cage cover serving as the upper electrode, and the bottom electrode was an aluminium plate serving as ground
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 12.8 V/m unspecified unspecified - -

Reference articles

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The results showed a significantly larger number of pathological changes in the offspring compared to mothers exposed to broadband, low intensity electromagnetic fields.
Histological and hematological data revealed gender specific responses in 21 day-old mice after in utero and postnatal continuous exposure: lymphocyte percentage and total white blood cell counts were significantly elevated in exposed female neonates compared to control mice. Lymphoma-like cells were seen in higher numbers in exposed male neonates.
In exposed mice, megaloblastic changes were observed. The blood from control neonatal mice was more viscous than that of exposed animals. The adult female mice showed no significant differences in the above hematologic parameters between exposed and control groups.
Histological study revealed different pathological changes in the adrenal cortex and in the adrenal medulla. Cystic proliferations were found in the cortical area of the thymus. In the medulla of the thymus, there was vacuolation, inflammation, or eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions in exposed animals.
Behavioral differences occurred in both neonates and adult females. Control neonates were able to manipulate through a maze more quickly than exposed neonates; and control adult females displayed more thorough grooming behavior than exposed mothers, and maintained more distance between the nest and dropping location than did the exposed group.

Study character:

Study funded by

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