The pregnant mice were divided into three groups (n=10 per group): 1.) control group, 2.) exposure to a frequency of 950 MHz and 3.) exposure to a frequency of 1800 MHz. The dams were killed at day 18 of gestation.
In none of the groups, malformations of embryos were found. In exposed embryos, the mean body length and body weight were significantly decreased when compared to the control group, while the mortality rate and the resorption sites were significantly increased.
Regarding the light microscopic examination of the retina, in the exposed groups, pyknotic nuclei were found in some cells of the retinal tissue, but not in the control group. Additionally, in the third group (1800 MHz), cells of the retinal tissue lost their normal arrangement and became aggregated in the inner and outer layer of the retina.
Via electron microscopy, deformation of the mitochondria was observed in both exposed groups. In the second group (950 MHz), degenerated cell organelles were observed in ganglion cells, while aggregations of melanin, vacuolation of the cytoplasm and condensed heterochromatin were observed in the third group (1800 MHz).
The data indicate a possible deleterious effect of prenatal exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones on the retina and on the growth of mice embryos.