Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Low power density RF-radiation effects on experimental animal embryos and foetuses. med./bio.

Published in: Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation Springer, 2003, ISBN 9783540429890: 579-602

Aim of study (acc. to author)

In a series of studies the effects of radiofrequency and microwave irradiation on the prenatal development in small animals were investigated.

Background/further details

The first study was carried out in a natural environment (in situ), while the remaining studies were performed in the laboratory.
Study 1: Mice (n=12) were pregnant five times over a period of six months. The first pregnancy took place on eight selected natural exposure locations (a, b, c, d, e, f, g and h) in the environment of an antenna-park. Then mice were moved to two locations (A=d and B=h, each n=6). For the fifth pregnancy, all animals were moved to location i (together with one control group (n=6)).
Study 2: Fertilized quail eggs (n=300) were exposed to various levels of radiofrequency irradiation during the first three days of embryonic development. In a further experiment (study 3), 60 quail eggs were exposed and 34 were sham-exposed.
Study 4: 380 fertilized chicken eggs were exposed to different microwaves (CW, PW) and 116 eggs were sham-exposed during the 3rd and 10th day of incubation.
Study 5: Two experiments with each 12 pregnant rats were performed. In the first experiment animals were exposed from the 1st to 3rd day after fertilization and in the second experiment from the 4th to the 9th day of gestation. 10 rats were sham-exposed.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1:
  • unspecified
Exposure duration: continuous for 6 months
mice
Exposure 2: 95 MHz
Exposure duration: continuous for 16 days
quail eggs
Exposure 3: 9.31 GHz
Exposure duration: continuous for 3 days
quail eggs
Exposure 4: 9.152 GHz
Exposure duration: from 3rd to 10th day of incubation
chicken
Exposure 5: 9.152 GHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: from 3rd to 10th day of incubation
chicken
Exposure 6: 9.35 GHz
Exposure duration: 1st to 3rd day after fertilization or 4th to 9th day of fertilization
Exposure 7: 9.3 GHz
Exposure duration: continuous for 4 days or 6 h/day on 4 days
-

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency
  • unspecified
Exposure duration continuous for 6 months
Additional info mice
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 1.053 µW/cm² average over time measured - -
SAR 1.935 mW/kg - - unspecified -

Exposure 2

Main characteristics
Frequency 95 MHz
Type
Exposure duration continuous for 16 days
Additional info quail eggs
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 15 µW/cm² - measured - -
SAR 0.566 mW/kg - - - at 15 µW/cm²
power density 30 µW/cm² - measured - -
SAR 1.131 mW/kg - - - at 30 µW/cm²
power density 60 µW/cm² - measured - -
SAR 2.262 mW/kg - - - at 60 µW/cm²
power density 90 µW/cm² - measured - -
SAR 3.393 mW/kg - - - at 90 µW/cm²
power density 120 µW/cm² - measured - -
SAR 4.52 mW/kg - - - at 120 µW/cm²
power density 150 µW/cm² - measured - -
SAR 5.655 mW/kg - - - at 150 µW/cm²

Exposure 3

Main characteristics
Frequency 9.31 GHz
Type
Exposure duration continuous for 3 days
Additional info quail eggs
Modulation
Modulation type cf. additional info
Additional info

pulse modulated

Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 5 µW/cm² - measured - -
power density 120 µW/cm² maximum measured - -
SAR 189 µW/kg - - - at 5 µW/cm²

Exposure 4

Main characteristics
Frequency 9.152 GHz
Type
Charakteristic
Exposure duration from 3rd to 10th day of incubation
Additional info chicken
Modulation
Modulation type cf. additional info
Additional info

pulse modulated

Exposure setup
Exposure source
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 5 m
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 8.8 µW/cm² - measured - -
SAR 0.33 mW/kg - - - -

Exposure 5

Main characteristics
Frequency 9.152 GHz
Type
Charakteristic
Exposure duration from 3rd to 10th day of incubation
Additional info chicken
Modulation
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 5 m
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 8.8 µW/cm² - measured - -
SAR 0.33 mW/kg - - - -

Exposure 6

Main characteristics
Frequency 9.35 GHz
Type
Charakteristic
Exposure duration 1st to 3rd day after fertilization or 4th to 9th day of fertilization
Additional info rats
Modulation
Modulation type cf. additional info
Additional info

pulse modulated

Exposure setup
Exposure source
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 5 m
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 5 µW/cm² - measured - -

Exposure 7

Main characteristics
Frequency 9.3 GHz
Type
Charakteristic
Exposure duration continuous for 4 days or 6 h/day on 4 days
Additional info rats
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters

No parameters are specified for this exposure.

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

Study 1: For the experimental groups A and B a progressive decrease of the number of the offsprings from the first to the fifth pregnancy was observed compared to the controls. The crown-rump length, the weight and the number of posterior vertebrae were increased in the newborns from groups A and B compared to the controls. Malformations were scarce and no retardation of skeletal ossification has been observed.
Study 2 and 3: In both studies neither external nor internal malformations were observed, nor significant changes in weight and crown-rump length in both controls or exposed quails. In study 2, more than 16% of the exposed embryos died, while no embryonic deaths have been detected in controls. In study 3, 65% of embryonic and foetal deaths were observed among exposed eggs compared to 11.7% among the controls.
Study 4: 62.78% of the CW- and 47.12% of the PW-irradiated foetuses presented development retardation, post-hatching mortality, severe malformations, embryonic and foetal deaths. Only 3.44% of the sham exposed foetuses presented adverse effects. In the PW-irradiated foetuses a decrease of the pre-hatching period by 48 hours was observed.
Study 5: More than 50% of all exposed groups did not give birth. Examinations of uteri of these rats have shown alterations (e.g. endometritis, nodules) to a great extent. No statistically significant deviations in crown-rump length or weight were observed for controls and newborns from the exposed rats.
Experimental results on various species of experimental animals have indicated adverse effects, strongly varying in intensity, from traceable to very grave, including embryonic and foetal deaths. These effects seem to be more pronounced in the early stages of the embryonic life.

Study character:

Study funded by

Related articles