To study the effects of microwaves of Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) at different carrier frequencies on human lymphocytes from healthy persons and from persons reporting hypersensitivity to electromagnetic fields.
Heat treatment in water bath (at 41°C and 43°C) was used as a positive control for stress response.
Several proteins, such as the tumor suppressor p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) and the phosphorylated histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX), have been shown to produce discrete intranuclear foci, which are believed to colocolize with DNA double-strand breaks providing a scaffold structure for DNA double-strand breaks repair.
|Exposure duration||continuous for 1 h|
|Chamber||Cells were exposed in 14 ml round-bottom tubes (2.5 ml cell suspension per tube) which were placed in a humidified CO2 incubator maintained at 37°C.|
|Setup||The output of the mobile phone (see reference article) was connected via coaxial cable to a TEM cell. The power was monitored online using a power meter.|
|Additional info||In each experiment, the cells from the same blood samples were exposed in the same TEM cell in sequence and in random order to microwaves at 905 MHz and 915 MHz and sham-exposed with microwaves off. Heat treatment in a water bath, at 41°C and 43°C, was used as a positive control for stress responses. As a positive control for genotoxic effect, the cells were irradiated with 137Cs γ-rays, at 3 Gy, with a dose rate of 10.6 Gy/min.|
Microwaves from GSM mobile phones affect chromatin conformation and 53BP1/gamma-H2AX foci similar to heat shock. These effects indicate stress responses and/or DNA damage. The effects of microwaves from mobile phones on human lymphocytes are dependent on carrier frequency. On average, the same response was found in lymphocytes from hypersensitive and healthy subjects.