Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Influence of 1.8-GHz (GSM) radiofrequency radiation (RFR) on DNA damage and repair induced by X-rays in human leukocytes in vitro. med./bio.

Published in: Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen 2009; 677 (1-2): 100-104

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study whether 1.8 GHz radiofrequency irradiation can influence DNA repair in human leukocytes exposed to X-rays.

Background/further details

Leukocytes from four young healthy donors were intermittently exposed to radiofrequency for 24 h, and then irradiated with X-rays at doses of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Gy. DNA damage was detected at 0, 15, 45, 90, 150 and 240 min after exposure to X-rays.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 1.8 GHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: 5 min on - 10 min off, for 24 hr
  • SAR: 2 W/kg average over time

General information

all cells were exposed to X-rays after RF exposure or sham exposure

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 1.8 GHz
Exposure duration 5 min on - 10 min off, for 24 hr
Modulation type pulsed
Duty cycle 12.5 %
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup waveguide inside an incubator; cells kept inside the waveguide at a constant temperature; cells placed in the H-field maximum of the standing wave
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 2 W/kg average over time - - -

Reference articles

  • Zeng Q et al. (2006): Effects of global system for mobile communications 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on gene and protein expression in MCF-7 cells.
  • Leszczynski D et al. (2004): Applicability of discovery science approach to determine biological effects of mobile phone radiation.

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The data showed that the DNA repair speeds of human leukocytes after X-ray exposure exhibited individual differences among the four donors. Additionally, the intermittent exposures of 1.8 GHz radiofrequency for 24 h did not directly induce a DNA damage or exhibit synergistic effects with X-rays on human leukocytes.

Study character:

Study funded by

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