The authors have developed an acute ocular injury model and they used this model to examine the clinical course of millimeter wave-induced damages (examination until seven weeks after exposure). They also determined the experimental conditions leading to reproducible induction of ocular injuries caused by millimeter wave exposure.
|Exposure duration||continuous for 30 min|
|power density||475 mW/cm²||-||-||-||-|
The three antennas caused varying damages to the eyelids or eyeglobes. They all caused thermal burns to the eyelids that eventually affected the degree of intraocular injury. The most reproducible injuries without concurrent eyelid edema and corneal desiccation (that also can cause corneal epithelium damage) were achieved using the phi6 lens antenna: exposure for six minutes led to an elevation of the corneal surface temperature (reaching 54.2 +/- 0.9°C) plus corneal edema and epithelial cell loss. Furthermore, mitotic cells appeared in the pupillary area of the eye lens epithelium. Anterior uveitis also occurred resulting in acute miosis, an increase in flares (as marker for ocular inflammation), and iris vasodilation or vessel leakage.
These data indicate that the three types of millimeter wave antennas can cause thermal injuries of varying types and levels. The thermal effects induced by millimeter waves can apparently penetrate below the surface of the eye.