Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Protein changes in macrophages induced by plasma from rats exposed to 35 GHz millimeter waves med./bio.

Published in: Bioelectromagnetics 2010; 31 (8): 656-663

Aim of study (acc. to author)

A macrophage assay and proteomic screening were used to study the biological activity of soluble factors in the plasma of millimeter wave-exposed rats.

Background/further details

Rat alveolar macrophages (NR8383 cell line) were incubated for 24 h with 10% plasma from male Sprague-Dawley rats that had been exposed to sham exposure conditions (plasma of three sham exposed rats), or exposed to 42°C (n=3, as positive control) environmental heat or 35 GHz millimeter waves (n=3) until core temperature reached 41°C.
The authors hypothesized that 35 GHz millimeter waves can elicit the release of biologically active mediators into the systemic blood circulation leading to downstream responses in cells and tissues. Use of an in vitro assay allows delineation of effects induced by plasma-borne compounds from the direct effects of heating that would likely be exhibited by macrophage cells derived from the millimeter wave-exposed rats. Macrophages were selected because they have a major role in immune system functions, and, were shown in previous studies to be affected by millimeter wave exposure (see "related articels").
As a positive control for Western blot macrophages were treated for 24 h with a mixture of lipopolysaccharide and recombinant rat IFN-gamma in culture medium.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 35 GHz
Exposure duration: until core temperature reached 41° C (for millimeter wave exposure ca. 46 min.); 46 min.for sham exposure

General information

rats were treated in three groups: i) sham exposure ii) 42° C environmental heat iii) millimeter wave exposure

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 35 GHz
Exposure duration until core temperature reached 41° C (for millimeter wave exposure ca. 46 min.); 46 min.for sham exposure
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 110 cm
Setup conical horn antenna with an aperture of 6.8 cm; anesthetized rats placed on a stand with the clipped side of the body centered along the boresight of the horn antenna
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power 50 W - measured - -
power density 75 mW/cm² mean - - -

Reference articles

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • during exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

Compared to plasma from sham exposed rats, plasma from heat or millimeter wave exposed rats increased the expression of 11 proteins, and levels of 3-nitrotyrosine in seven proteins, in the NR8383 cell line. These altered proteins are associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, and energy metabolism.
Findings of this study indicate both environmental heat and 35 GHz millimeter wave exposure elicit the release of macrophage-activating mediators into the plasma of rats.

Study character:

Study funded by

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