Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Effect of millimeter waves on cyclophosphamide induced suppression of T cell functions med./bio.

Published in: Bioelectromagnetics 2003; 24 (5): 356-365

Aim of study (acc. to editor)

To investigate whether millimeter waves can modulate T cell recovery after suppression with cyclophosphamide (CPA), a commonly used anticancer drug.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 42.2 GHz
Exposure duration: repeated daily exposure, 30 min/day, for 3 days
  • power: 31.5 mW
  • power density: 31 mW/cm² peak value (± 5 mW/cm²)
  • SAR: 622 W/kg peak value (±100 W/kg at the skin surface)

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 42.2 GHz
Exposure duration repeated daily exposure, 30 min/day, for 3 days
Additional info ± 0.2 GHz
Modulation type unspecified
Additional info

modulated at 60 Hz

Exposure setup
Exposure source
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 5 mm
Setup The animals were restrained in plastic tubes of 3.5 cm diameter in such a way that their nose stuck out of a 5-mm hole in the front end and was kept at a distance of 5 mm from the central part of the horn. The mice were irradiated on the nose area as reported earlier [Rojavin et al., 1997; Radzievsky et al., 2000].
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional info Four groups of animals were used: naive control, CPA treated, CPA treated and sham exposed, and CPA treated and MW exposed. CPA (100 mg/kg) solution in physiological saline (0.5 ml) was administered i.p. just before exposure on the second day. All irradiation procedures were performed in a double blind manner.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power 31.5 mW - measured - -
power density 31 mW/cm² peak value measured - ± 5 mW/cm²
SAR 622 W/kg peak value measured - ±100 W/kg at the skin surface

Reference articles

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The results show that irradiation with millimeter waves at 42.2 GHz and a peak incident power density of 31 mW/cm² enhance T cell recovery through alteration in activation and effector functions of CD4+ T cells. Millimeter wave irradiation significantly augmented the proliferation recovery process of spleen cells suppressed by CPA. It was shown that CD4+ T cells play an important role in this process. Millimeter waves exposure restored the activation of anti-CD3 stimulated CD4+ T cells and enhanced interferon-gamma production by these cells. Millimeter wave exposure also restored tumor necrosis factorsecretory activity by macrophages of immunosuppressed mice. When normal healthy mice were irradiated, any significant effect of millimeter waves on either proliferation activity or activation process in splenocytes could be observed.

Study character:

Study funded by

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